Australia

Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia
Landing of James Cook at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770 to claim Australia's eastern half for Great Britain
Tasmania's Port Arthur penal settlement is one of eleven UNESCO World Heritage-listed Australian Convict Sites
The Big Picture, a painting by Tom Roberts, depicts the opening of the first Australian Parliament in 1901
The 1942 Bombing of Darwin, the first of over 100 Japanese air raids on Australia during World War II
Postwar migrants from Europe arriving in Australia in 1954
Topographic map of Australia. Dark green represents the lowest elevation and dark brown the highest
Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef
Uluru in the semi-arid region of Central Australia
Basic geological regions of Australia, by age.
Köppen climate types of Australia.
The koala and the eucalyptus form an iconic Australian pair.
Parliament House, Canberra
A map of Australia's states and territories
Diplomatic missions of Australia
HMAS Canberra, a Canberra class landing helicopter dock, and HMAS Arunta, an Anzac-class frigate, sailing in formation
Australian energy resources and major export ports map
The Boddington Gold Mine in Western Australia is the nation's largest open cut mine.
Australia has one of the world's most highly urbanised populations with the majority living in metropolitan cities on the coast, such as Gold Coast, Queensland.
Australian residents by country of birth, 2016 census
Five Australian universities rank in the top 50 of the QS World University Rankings, including the Australian National University (19th).
The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne was the first building in Australia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004.
Sidney Nolan's Snake mural (1970), held at the Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart, Tasmania, is inspired by the Aboriginal creation myth of the Rainbow Serpent, as well as desert flowers in bloom after a drought.
Actor playing the bushranger Ned Kelly in The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film
The meringue-based pavlova is generally eaten at Christmas time.
The Melbourne Cricket Ground is strongly associated with the history and development of cricket and Australian rules football, Australia's two most popular spectator sports.

Sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australia Day

Sydney Harbour on Australia Day, 2014
Capt. Arthur Phillip raising the British flag at Sydney Cove, 26 January 1788. Oil sketch by Algernon Talmage, 1937.
Foundation of Australia plaque, Loftus Street, Circular Quay
The first in what would become the Sydney Regatta tradition, 26 January 1838.
NSW state banquet to commemorate "the first 100 years of Australian settlement", 26 January 1888
Sesquicentenary parade in Sydney, 26 January 1938
Sydney Harbour, 26 January 1988
Australia Day in Perth
Prime Minister Julia Gillard at the 2013 National Flag Raising and Citizenship Ceremony in Canberra
The City of Perth Skyworks is the largest Australia Day fireworks display in the country
Australia Day barbecue at Berridge Park, Denmark, Western Australia
An Invasion Day rally in Brisbane, 2007

Australia Day is the official national day of Australia.

Oceania

Geographical region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Ethnocultural subregions of Oceania.
A German map of Oceania from 1884, showing the region to encompass Australia and all islands between Asia and Latin America.
A map of member states for the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), the member states are depicted in blue. The PIF is a governing organization for the Pacific, and all of its members are politically within Oceania. Territories geographically associated with Oceania, but not politically associated with Oceania, such as Easter Island, Hawaii and Western New Guinea, have considered gaining representation in the PIF.
An exclusive economic zone map of the Pacific which includes territories not politically associated with Oceania, that may be considered geographically or geologically within Oceania.
A 19th-century engraving of an Aboriginal Australian encampment
Stone money transport to Yap Island in Micronesia (1880)
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific (per Bellwood in Chambers, 2008)
Moai at Ahu Tongariki on Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
1852 map of Oceania by J. G. Barbié du Bocage. Includes regions of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia and Malesia.
New Guinea from 1884 to 1919. The Netherlands controlled the western half of New Guinea, Germany the north-eastern part, and Britain the south-eastern part.
New Zealand troops land on Vella Lavella, in Solomon Islands.
Aoraki / Mount Cook, located on the South Island of New Zealand
Puncak Jaya / Carstensz Pyramid, highest summit in Oceania
A map of Oceania from the CIA World Factbook
Exclusive economic zones of Pacific states and territories
The Pacific Plate comprises most of Oceania, excluding Australasia and the western portion of Melanesia.
New Zealand countryside
Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Central Australia
The Pacific robin inhabits the islands of the south western Pacific.
August 2011 winter's snowfall in Dunedin, Otago
Saione, the church of the King, a Free Wesleyan Church in Kolomotuʻa, Tonga. Especially British and American missionaries brought various Protestant denominations to Oceania.
Many Portuguese immigrants in Hawaii were Azorean or Madeiran.
The skyline of Sydney
Auckland's central business district at night.
Honolulu viewed from Diamond Head crater
Shangri-La's Fijian Resort
Dandenong Ranges in Victoria are popular among tourists.
Elizabeth is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of five Oceanian countries: Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu.
Government building in the Samoan capital Apia housing administrative ministerial offices.
On 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was restored and opened to the public as a museum in 1978.
The Hobbiton Movie Set, located near Matamata, was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.
A fale on Manono Island
Gwion Gwion rock paintings found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia
Fiji playing Wales at seven-a-side rugby

Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of Australia, French Polynesia, Hawaii, New Caledonia, and New Zealand, which rank high in quality of life and Human Development Index, to the much less developed economies such as Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western New Guinea, while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as Fiji, Palau, and Tonga.

History of Australia (1788–1850)

The history of Australia from 1788 to 1850 covers the early British colonial period of Australia's history, starting with the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Port Jackson, leading to the establishment of the penal colony of Sydney as part of the British Empire.

Lieutenant James Cook's landing at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770
Captain James Cook proclaiming sovereignty over Australia from the shore of Possession Island in 1770
The continent of Australia (then known as New Holland) in a 1796 map, which was incorporated within Asia or the "Eastern world"
First raising of the Union Flag following the arrival of the First Fleet, and the proclamation of the Colony of New South Wales by Captain Arthur Phillip at Sydney Cove on 7 February 1788
Arrival of the First Fleet in Port Jackson in 1788
Founding of the settlement of Port Jackson at Botany Bay in 1788
Sydney in 1792
Frigate The Guardian, of the Second Fleet, striking on the rocks of ice, 1790
Map of Australia and New Zealand 1788–1911
The Castle Hill convict rebellion of 1804
Parramatta in 1812
Sydney Cove, from Dawes Point about 1818
Australian colonies in 1846
''The proclamation of government in South Australia, 1836
Matthew Flinders led the first successful circumnavigation of Australia by colonisers in 1801–2.
Flinders prepares to circumnavigate Terra Australis, 1802
Acting Lieutenant Charles Robbins raises the Union Jack under the watch of the French at King Island, 1802
Mounted police engaging Aboriginal men during the Slaughterhouse Creek Massacre of 1838
Captains Hunter, Collins and Johnston with Governor Phillip and Surgeon White visiting a distressed Aboriginal woman at a hut near Port Jackson, 1793
The Rum Rebellion of 1808
Captain Arthur Phillip, RN, served as the first Governor of New South Wales
Opening of Australia's first elected Parliament in Sydney, 1843
The Mellish entering Sydney Harbour. It was one of the ships that imported resources from India, playing a vital role in establishing Sydney.
St James' Church, Sydney, about 1836. It was designed by Francis Greenway and still stands.
A steeple-chase at Five Dock, 1844. Equestrianism was one of the first organised sports in the country
Watkin Tench, captain-lieutenant of the Royal Marines on the First Fleet, author of seminal works of Australian literature
Robert Hawker Dowling, a notable early artist famed for his paintings of Aboriginal people, 1860
The house and garden, in Mills Plains, Van Diemen's Land, of prominent early Australian artist John Glover

This colonial society later developed into the modern Commonwealth of Australia.

States and territories of Australia

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Map showing the states of Australia and their governing political parties as of 2022.

The states and territories are federated administrative divisions in Australia, ruled by regional governments that constitute the second level of governance between the federal government and local governments.

Canberra

Canberra

Canberra, from top left to bottom right–the city viewed from Mount Ainslie, the Land Axis featuring Old Parliament House and New Parliament House, the Australian War Memorial, the National Carillon, the National Gallery of Australia and the National Library of Australia on Lake Burley Griffin
St John's Anglican Church, the oldest surviving public building in the inner city, consecrated in 1845
Blundells Cottage, built around 1860, is one of the few remaining buildings built by the first white settlers of Canberra.
The opening of Parliament House in May 1927.
Canberra's Government House, the official residence of the Governor-General of Australia.
Two of Canberra's best-known landmarks, Parliament House and Old Parliament House (foreground). Commonwealth Place runs alongside the lake and includes the International Flag Display. Questacon is on the right.
Canberra Civic (CBD) viewed from Mount Ainslie with Lake Burley Griffin and Mount Stromlo in the background.
The Skywhale and Skywhalepapa in 2021
The Canberra region seen from space
The location of Canberra within the ACT. Canberra's main districts are shown in yellow: Canberra Central (marked as North Canberra and South Canberra), Woden Valley, Belconnen, Weston Creek, Tuggeranong, and Gungahlin.
Long-term temperature increase in Canberra
Inner Canberra demonstrates some aspects of the Griffin plan, in particular the Parliamentary Triangle.
The Woden Valley viewed from Red Hill
Black Mountain with the landmark Telstra Tower on the right and the National Arboretum in the foreground
Floriade is held in Commonwealth Park every spring. It is the largest flower festival in the Southern Hemisphere, employing and encouraging environmental practises, including the use of green energy.
ACT Legislative Assembly
and the statue Ethos (Tom Bass, 1961)
Just under a third of Canberrans are employed in the public sector, working in government departments such as the Treasury
Tourism, accommodation, retail and food are also major employers
Construction is the largest non-service sector, employing just over 5% of the workforce
A growing number of Canberrans work in the science and technology sector, such as at the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex
Shopping at the weekly Old Bus Depot Markets, Kingston
The annual Canberra Nara Candle Festival
ANU School of Art (formerly the Canberra High School)
The National Museum of Australia established in 2001 records Australia's social history and is one of Canberra's more architecturally daring buildings.
The Australian War Memorial
A copy of every book published in Australia is required by law to be held by the National Library of Australia.
The annual Skyfire fireworks display over Lake Burley Griffin, held during the Enlighten Festival
Canberra–Nara park with Kasuga stone lanterns framed by the gate
A rugby league match at Canberra Stadium
The Canberra Hospital
Canberra International Airport terminal
Aerial view of Tuggeranong Parkway, a major highway which links Canberra's city centre with Tuggeranong
ACTION Volgren bodied Scania K360UA
Alinga Street Light Rail Station, City Interchange
A Canberra Ford Falcon Taxicab
The Mount Majura Solar Farm has a rated output of 2.3 megawatts and was opened on 6 October 2016.

is the capital city of Australia.

Constitutional monarchy

Form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises their authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding.

The three constitutional monarchs of the Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Norway & Denmark gathered in November 1917 in Oslo.
From left to right: Gustaf V, Haakon VII & Christian X.
A meeting in the Japanese privy council in 1946 led by emperor Hirohito.

Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Japan, where the monarch retains significantly less personal discretion in the exercise of their authority.

Perth

Perth is located on the traditional land of the Whadjuk people, one of several groups in south-western Western Australia that make up the Noongar people.
The Foundation of Perth 1829 by George Pitt Morison is an historical reconstruction of the official ceremony by which Perth was founded, although not everyone depicted may have actually been present.
Perth Town Hall, like many colonial buildings in Perth, was built using convict labour.
Looking across Perth railway station c. 1955
Construction of the Narrows Bridge nearing completion in 1959.
Area of the Perth Metropolitan Region Scheme
Cottesloe Beach
Kangaroo Paw at Kings Park
Russell Square, Northbridge - historically the favoured meeting place of the Italian community of "Little Italy"
Chinatown entry on Roe Street
St Mary's Cathedral
Parliament House
Government House
Fremantle Harbour
Perth Modern School, Perth's first public high school
The University of Western Australia, located in Crawley
ABC Perth studios in, home of 720 ABC Perth radio and ABC television in Western Australia
Channel 9's Perth Studio
Scene from the inauguration of the 2015 Perth Festival, Australia's oldest continuously-running cultural festival
Perth Concert Hall
Perth actor Heath Ledger, namesake of the Heath Ledger Theatre
The Fremantle West End Heritage area is home to hundreds of Victorian and Edwardian era buildings.
The "Wirin" sculpture at Yagan Square
Forrest Place, a pedestrianised square, hosts many cultural events.
Optus Stadium hosts cricket and Australian rules football, Perth's most popular spectator sports
The exterior of Perth Arena
HBF Park hosts rugby league, rugby union and soccer
Perth Children's Hospital
The Public Transport Centre, adjacent to East Perth railway station
Mundaring Weir

Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA).

Federalism

Mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial, or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system, dividing the powers between the two.

The pathway of regional integration or separation
Satiric depiction of late 19th-century political tensions in Argentina

Examples of a federation or federal province or state include Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Iraq, Canada, Germany, UAE, Mexico, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Switzerland, and United States.

Sovereign state

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.
De facto map of control of the world, May 2019

Absolute sovereign immunity is no longer as widely accepted as it has been in the past, and some countries, including the United States, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Pakistan and South Africa, have introduced restrictive immunity by statute, which explicitly limits jurisdictional immunity to public acts, but not private or commercial ones, though there is no precise definition by which public acts can easily be distinguished from private ones.

Penal transportation

The relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony, for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.

Women in Plymouth, England, parting from their lovers who are about to be transported to Botany Bay, 1792
Neptune, a 19th-century convict ship that brought prisoners to Australia
Joseph Lycett, an artist transported for forging bank notes, The residence of Edward Riley Esquire, Wooloomooloo, Near Sydney N. S. W., 1825, hand-coloured aquatint and etching printed in dark blue ink. Australian print in the tradition of British decorative production.
1848 Woodcut of HMD Bermuda on Ireland Island, Bermuda, showing prison hulks
This notice on a bridge in Dorset warns that damage to the bridge can be punished by transportation.

Transportation on a large scale resumed with the departure of the First Fleet to Australia in 1787, and continued there until 1868.