Austria-Hungary

Austro-HungarianAustro-Hungarian EmpireAustrianAustro-Hungarian MonarchyAustriaAustrian-HungarianAustrian EmpireAustro-HungariansAustrian-Hungarian EmpireAustria-Hungarian
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it self-dissolved at the end of World War I.wikipedia
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Cisleithania

AustrianCisleithania (Austria)Austria
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it self-dissolved at the end of World War I. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it self-dissolved at the end of World War I. Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on July 28, 1914.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France, Russia and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (the Triple Alliance was primarily defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war in 1914).

Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

compromise of 1867Austro-Hungarian CompromiseAusgleich
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it self-dissolved at the end of World War I. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen.

Habsburg Monarchy

HabsburgAustriaAustrian
It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy.
From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Multinational state

multiethnicmulti-ethnicmultiethnic society
Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of Europe's major powers at the time.
Examples of historical multinational states that have since split into multiple sovereign states include Austria-Hungary, British India, Czechoslovakia, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia.

Croatian–Hungarian Settlement

SettlementSettlement of 1868a similar compromise in 1868
Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Nagodba) in 1868. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia (officially the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia, even though Dalmatia was in the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy) within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba, Horvát–magyar kiegyezés, Kroatisch-Ungarischer Ausgleich) was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it self-dissolved at the end of World War I. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

YugoslaviaKingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesYugoslav
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
The preliminary kingdom was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia.

Central Powers

CentralCentral Powerenemy
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on July 28, 1914.
The Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war.

Sandžak

Sandžak (Raška) regionfederal border regionRaška
Sandžak/Raška, de jure northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar (in modern-day Montenegro and Serbia), was also under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia.
Between 1878 and 1909 the region was placed under Austro-Hungarian occupation, following which it was ceded back to the Ottoman Empire.

Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen

Kingdom of HungaryHungaryLands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Hungary)
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it self-dissolved at the end of World War I. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).

Emperor of Austria

EmperorAustrian EmperorEmperors of Austria
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Armistice of Villa Giusti

armisticearmistice with Italyend of the war on the Italian Front
It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918.
The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I.

Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

Croatia-SlavoniaCroatiaKingdom of Croatia
Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Nagodba) in 1868. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia (officially the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia, even though Dalmatia was in the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy) within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom and constitutionally defined separate political nation within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.

Kingdom of Dalmatia

DalmatiaDalmatianAustrian Dalmatia
Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia (officially the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia, even though Dalmatia was in the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy) within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
The Kingdom of Dalmatia (Kraljevina Dalmacija; Königreich Dalmatien; Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918).

Galicia (Eastern Europe)

GaliciaGalicianEastern Galicia
Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia (officially the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia, even though Dalmatia was in the Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy) within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
Galicia (Ukrainian and, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galitsiya; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe . It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.

Kingdom of Serbia

SerbiaSerbiankingdom
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on July 28, 1914.
In 1882, King Milan I proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbia and maintained a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary.

Second Polish Republic

PolandPolishinterwar Poland
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
German and Austro-Hungarian armies seized the Russian-ruled part of what became Poland.

Austro-Hungarian Navy

Austrian NavyAustro-HungarianAustro-Hungarian fleet
The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army, for the navy, for foreign policy, and for the customs union.
The Austro-Hungarian Navy or Imperial and Royal War Navy (kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine sometimes shortened to k.u.k. Kriegsmarine, Császári és Királyi Haditengerészet) was the naval force of Austria-Hungary.

Austro-Hungarian Army

Austrian ArmyAustro-HungarianArmy
The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army, for the navy, for foreign policy, and for the customs union.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.

House of Lorraine

Habsburg-LorraineLorraineHouse of Habsburg-Lorraine
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918.

Eduard Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe

Eduard TaaffeCount TaaffeEduard Graf von Taaffe
The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe, the Austrian prime minister from 1879 to 1893.
Eduard Franz Joseph Graf von Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe (24 February 183329 November 1895) was an Austrian statesman, who served for two terms as Minister-President of Cisleithania, leading cabinets from 1868 to 1870 and 1879 to 1893.

Imperial and Royal

k.u.k.k.k.k. u. k.
From 1867 onwards, the abbreviations heading the names of official institutions in Austria-Hungary reflected their responsibility: k. u. k. (kaiserlich und königlich or Imperial and Royal) was the label for institutions common to both parts of the Monarchy, e.g. the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine (War Fleet) and, during the war, the k.u.k. Armee (Army).
Some modern authors restrict its use to the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918.

Gyula Andrássy

AndrássyCount AndrássyCount Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka
The first prime minister of Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy (1867–1871).
Count Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (8 March 1823 – 18 February 1890) was a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879).