Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–HungaryAustro-HungaryAustrianAustro-Hungarian MonarchyAustriaAustrian-Hungarian EmpireAustrian-HungarianAustria-Hungary Empire
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918.wikipedia
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Cisleithania

AustrianCisleithania (Austria)Austria
It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War. Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I, which began with an Austro-Hungarian war declaration on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France, Russia, and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (the Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April 1915, when it joined the Allied Powers after its relations with Austria-Hungary deteriorated).

Multinational state

multiethnicmulti-ethnicmultiethnic society
Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of Europe's major powers at the time.
Examples of historical multinational states that have since split into multiple sovereign states include the Ottoman Empire, British India, Czechoslovakia, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Austria-Hungary, that was a joint monarchy of two multinational states.

Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg EmpireHabsburgAustria
It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy.
From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Croatian–Hungarian Settlement

Croatian-Hungarian SettlementNagodbaCroatian-Hungarian Agreement
It consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba, Horvát–magyar kiegyezés, Kroatisch-Ungarischer Ausgleich) was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary.

Central Powers

Central PowerCentralenemy
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I, which began with an Austro-Hungarian war declaration on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914.
The Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war.

Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen

TransleithaniaKingdom of HungaryHungary
It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).

First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
It was composed of the territories of Austria-Hungary, having different system of administration of the former respective Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia).

Emperor of Austria

EmperorAustrian EmperorEmperors of Austria
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
The Emperor of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was the ruler of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesYugoslaviaYugoslav
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
The preliminary kingdom was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia.

Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

Croatia-SlavoniaCroatiaKingdom of Croatia and Slavonia
It consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom and constitutionally defined separate political nation within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868.

Armistice of Villa Giusti

armisticeAustrian-Italian Armistice of Villa GiustiArmistice with Austria
It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918.
The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I.

Central Europe

CentralMiddle EuropeCentral European
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918.
The "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after World War I. Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would also include all European nations outside the Triple Entente.

Galicia (Eastern Europe)

GaliciaGalicianHalychyna
Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).
It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen.

Kingdom of Serbia

SerbiaSerbiankingdom
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I, which began with an Austro-Hungarian war declaration on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914.
In 1882, Serbia was elevated to the status of a kingdom, maintaining a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary.

Austro-Hungarian Navy

Austrian NavyAustro-HungarianNavy
The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army, for the navy, for foreign policy, and for the customs union.
The Austro-Hungarian Navy or Imperial and Royal War Navy (kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine sometimes shortened to k.u.k. Kriegsmarine, Császári és Királyi Haditengerészet) was the naval force of Austria-Hungary.

Austro-Hungarian Army

Austrian armyAustro-HungarianAustrian
The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army, for the navy, for foreign policy, and for the customs union.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.

Second Polish Republic

PolandPolishinterwar Poland
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
German and Austro-Hungarian armies seized the Russian-ruled part of what became Poland.

Eduard Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe

Count Eduard von TaaffeEduard TaaffeEduard Graf von Taaffe
The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe, the Austrian prime minister from 1879 to 1893.
Eduard Franz Joseph Graf von Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe (24 February 1833 – 29 November 1895) was an Austrian statesman, who served for two terms as Minister-President of Cisleithania, leading cabinets from 1868 to 1870 and 1879 to 1893.

House of Lorraine

Habsburg-LorraineHouse of Habsburg-LorraineLorraine
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).
Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918.

Imperial and Royal

k.u.k.k.k.kaiserlich und königlich
Some modern authors restrict its use to the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918.

Gyula Andrássy

AndrássyCount AndrassyCount Andrássy
The first prime minister of Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy (1867–1871).
Count Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (8 March 1823 – 18 February 1890) was a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879).

Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

compromise of 1867AusgleichAustro-Hungarian Compromise
The union was established by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 on 30 March 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.