Austrian Netherlands

AustrianAustrian ruleAustrian occupationFlemishNetherlandsAustrian controlAustrian duchy of GueldersAustrian HabsburgsAustrian Neth.Austrian regime
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.wikipedia
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Spanish Netherlands

NetherlandsSpanishLow Countries
The period began with the acquisition of the former Spanish Netherlands under the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 and lasted until its annexation during the aftermath of the Battle of Sprimont in 1794 and the Peace of Basel in 1795.
The Habsburgs often used the term Burgundy to refer to their hereditary lands (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Burgundian Circle established in 1512), actually until 1795, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to the French Republic.

Belgium

🇧🇪BelgianBEL
The Austrian Netherlands was a noncontiguous territory that consisted of what is now western Belgium as well as greater Luxembourg, bisected by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish (Spanish Netherlands) and the Austrian Habsburgs (Austrian Netherlands) and comprised most of modern Belgium.

Battle of Sprimont

Sprimont
The period began with the acquisition of the former Spanish Netherlands under the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 and lasted until its annexation during the aftermath of the Battle of Sprimont in 1794 and the Peace of Basel in 1795.
The battle put a final end to the Ancien Régime in what is now Belgium, then essentially the Austrian Netherlands, Principality of Liège and the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy.

Maria Theresa

Empress Maria TheresaMaria TheresiaMaria Theresa of Austria
Although the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle had stipulated that the Barrier towns should again be manned by Dutch garrisons, Charles's daughter and successor Maria Theresa, advised by her counselor Kaunitz, refused to pay for those troops any longer, unless there were to be negotiations about new trade agreements.
She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, and Parma.

Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VIArchduke CharlesEmperor Charles VI
As a result of the Barrier Treaty, the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI showed little apparent interest in the day-to-day rule of the Austrian Netherlands; yet he insisted on keeping ultimate control of the territories concerned. Charles VI attempted to use the Austrian Netherlands to compete with British and Dutch traders in an enterprise known as the Ostend Company.
He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.

Treaty of Campo Formio

Campo Formiopeace of Campo FormioTreaty of Campoformio
Austria, however, did not relinquish its claim over the province until 1797 in the Treaty of Campo Formio.
Lands ceded included the Austrian Netherlands (most of modern Belgium).

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
The dominant languages were German (including Luxembourgish), Dutch (Flemish), and French, along with Picard and Walloon.
Under subsequent Spanish, Austrian and French rule, the standardisation of Dutch language came to a standstill.

Ostend Company

Ostend East India CompanyBanquibazar & CabelonOostendsche Companie
Charles VI attempted to use the Austrian Netherlands to compete with British and Dutch traders in an enterprise known as the Ostend Company.
The Ostend Company (Oostendse Compagnie, or Generale Indische Compagnie, Compagnie d'Ostende; or, in full, Compagnie générale établie dans les Pays-Bas Autrichiens pour le Commerce et la Navigation aux Indes) was a chartered trading company in the Austrian Netherlands (part of the Holy Roman Empire, currently Belgium) which was established in 1722 to trade with the East and West Indies.

War of the Austrian Succession

Austrian SuccessionAustrianAustrian Successions
The war of 1740-1748 showed that Austria already had little interest in maintaining the Austrian Netherlands: constant bickering among the Allied commanders meant the French kept the initiative during the campaigns, and the fortifications, manned with mostly Dutch troops, were captured with ease by the French army.
Meanwhile, on the battlefields in northern Europe, Louis XV in person, with 90,000 men, invaded the Austrian Netherlands and took Menin and Ypres in July 1744.

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

Treaty of Aix-la-ChapellePeace of Aix-la-ChapelleTreaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748
Although the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle had stipulated that the Barrier towns should again be manned by Dutch garrisons, Charles's daughter and successor Maria Theresa, advised by her counselor Kaunitz, refused to pay for those troops any longer, unless there were to be negotiations about new trade agreements.
In France, there was a general resentment at what was seen as a foolish throwing away of advantages (particularly in the Austrian Netherlands, which had largely been conquered by the brilliant strategy of Marshal Saxe), and it came to be popular in Paris to use the phrases Bête comme la paix ("Stupid as the peace") and La guerre pour le roi de Prusse ("The war for the king of Prussia").

County of Flanders

FlandersFlemishCounts of Flanders
Resistance, focused in the autonomous and wealthy Estates of Brabant and Flanders, grew.
In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.

Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg

KaunitzWenzel Anton of Kaunitz-RietbergWenzel Anton Kaunitz
Although the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle had stipulated that the Barrier towns should again be manned by Dutch garrisons, Charles's daughter and successor Maria Theresa, advised by her counselor Kaunitz, refused to pay for those troops any longer, unless there were to be negotiations about new trade agreements.
In October 1744, he was appointed minister plenipotentiary in the Austrian Netherlands, while its governor, Prince Charles of Lorraine, fought in the Silesian Wars, commanding the Austrian army in Bohemia against King Frederick II of Prussia.

Treaty of Versailles (1757)

1757Second Treaty of VersaillesTreaty of Versailles
In the Treaty of Versailles of 1757, Austria agreed to the creation of an independent state in the Southern Netherlands ruled by Philip, Duke of Parma and garrisoned by French troops in exchange for French help in recovering Silesia.
In the new treaty, France agreed to assist Austria in regaining the province of Silesia from Prussia in exchange for Austria ceding the Austrian Netherlands to France at the war's conclusion, the acquisition of which had long been a goal of the French state.

United Belgian States

Brabant Revolutiona revolt in BrabantBelgian
Despite the tacit support of Prussia, the independent United Belgian States, established in January 1790, received no foreign recognition and soon became divided along ideological lines.
Influenced by the Enlightenment, Emperor Joseph II, who became sole ruler of the Habsburg lands after Maria Theresa's death in 1780, decreed a series of large-scale reforms in the Austrian Netherlands designed to radically modernize and centralize the political, judicial and administrative systems.

Dutch Republic

United ProvincesDutchNetherlands
In 1784 Joseph II did take up the long-standing grudge of Antwerp, whose once-flourishing trade was destroyed by the permanent closure of the Scheldt, and demanded that the Dutch Republic open the river to navigation.
In 1815 it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège (the "Southern provinces") to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France.

Statists (Belgium)

StatistsStatist
The Vonckists, led by Jan Frans Vonck, advocated progressive and liberal government, whereas the Statists, led by Hendrik Van der Noot, were staunchly conservative and supported by the Church.
The Statists (Statisten) were a conservative political faction in the Austrian Netherlands during the Brabant Revolution (1789–1790).

Hendrik Van der Noot

Van der NootHenri Van der Noot
The Vonckists, led by Jan Frans Vonck, advocated progressive and liberal government, whereas the Statists, led by Hendrik Van der Noot, were staunchly conservative and supported by the Church.
He was one of the main figures of the Brabant Revolution (1789–1790) against the Austrian rule of Joseph II.

Kettle War

However, the Emperor's stance was far from militant, and he called off hostilities after the so-called Kettle War, known by that name because its only "casualty" was a kettle.
Since Europe's "Diplomatic Revolution" of 1756, Austria, and thus the Austrian Netherlands, had been in an alliance with France.

Barrier Treaty

Barrierbarrier fortressBarrier Fortresses
As a result of the Barrier Treaty, the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI showed little apparent interest in the day-to-day rule of the Austrian Netherlands; yet he insisted on keeping ultimate control of the territories concerned.
This established a permanent Austro-Dutch military force of 30,000 to 35,000 men stationed in the Austrian Netherlands, the Dutch paying 40% of the costs and Austria 60% plus an additional lump sum to maintain the Barrier and its garrisons, now reduced to seven plus a mixed garrison at Dendermond.

Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor

Joseph IIEmperor Joseph IIJoseph
In 1784 Joseph II did take up the long-standing grudge of Antwerp, whose once-flourishing trade was destroyed by the permanent closure of the Scheldt, and demanded that the Dutch Republic open the river to navigation.
His main goal was to acquire Bavaria, if necessary in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands, but in 1778 and again in 1785 he was thwarted by King Frederick II of Prussia, whom he feared greatly; on the second occasion, a number of other German princes, wary of Joseph's designs on their lands, joined Frederick's side.

Electorate of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianElectorate
Throughout the latter part of the eighteenth century, the principal foreign policy goal of the Habsburg rulers was to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria, which would round out Habsburg possessions in southern Germany.
He felt himself a foreigner among foreigners, and his favourite scheme, the subject of endless intrigues with the Austrian cabinet and the immediate cause of Frederick II's League of Princes (Fürstenbund) of 1785, was to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands and the title of king of Burgundy.

Battle of Turnhout (1789)

Battle of Turnhout1789Turnhout
Soon after the outbreak of the French and Liège revolutions, the émigré army crossed into the Austrian Netherlands and decisively defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Turnhout in October 1789.
As the head of Habsburg Austria and ruler of the Austrian Netherlands, he decreed a wide-reaching programme of reforms.

Habsburg Monarchy

HabsburgAustriaAustrian
Hereditary Lands (Erblande or Erbländer; mostly used Österreichische Erblande) or German Hereditary Lands (in the Austrian monarchy) or Austrian Hereditary Lands (Middle Ages – 1849/1918): In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. basically the Austrian lands and Carniola (not Galicia, Italian territories or the Austrian Netherlands).

Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold IILeopoldPeter Leopold I
The new Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, was also a liberal and proposed an amnesty for the rebels.
He recognized the Estates of his different dominions as "the pillars of the monarchy", pacified the Hungarians and Bohemians, and divided the insurgents in the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) by means of concessions.

Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler

kronenthaler
The kronenthaler was the currency of the Austrian Netherlands since 1755.