Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

compromise of 1867Austro-Hungarian CompromiseAusgleich1867CompromiseCompromise of 15 March 1867compromise with the Austrians1867 "Ausgleich" ''(compromise)1867 Compromise67 ideology
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.wikipedia
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Austria-Hungary

Austro-HungarianAustro-Hungarian EmpireAustrian
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

Cisleithania

AustrianCisleithania (Austria)Austria
The Cisleithanian (Austrian) and Transleithanian (Hungarian) states were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, headed by a single monarch who reigned as Emperor of Austria in the Austrian half of the empire, and as King of Hungary in Kingdom of Hungary.
After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary.

Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph IFranz JosephFrancis Joseph I
According to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself."
He concluded the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary and transformed the Austrian Empire into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen

Kingdom of HungaryHungaryLands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Hungary)
The Cisleithanian (Austrian) and Transleithanian (Hungarian) states were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers.
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Transleithania consisted of the Kingdom of Hungary including Hungary proper (which also included territories of the former Principality of Transylvania (Erdélyi Fejedelemség) and the former Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat), the internally self-governed Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, and the free port of Rijeka (Fiume).

House of Habsburg

HabsburgHabsburgsHabsburg dynasty
Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, headed by a single monarch who reigned as Emperor of Austria in the Austrian half of the empire, and as King of Hungary in Kingdom of Hungary.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a real union, whereby the Kingdom of Hungary was granted co-equality with the Empire of Austria, that henceforth didn't include the Kingdom of Hungary as a crownland anymore.

Real union

combined under the rulemore closely unifiedreal
Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, headed by a single monarch who reigned as Emperor of Austria in the Austrian half of the empire, and as King of Hungary in Kingdom of Hungary.
The most notable example of such a move is the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen), which achieved equal status to Austria (which exercised control over the "Cisleithanian" crown lands) in Austria-Hungary following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Habsburg Monarchy

HabsburgAustriaAustrian
In the Middle Ages, the Duchy of Austria was an autonomous state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, and the Kingdom of Hungary was a sovereign state outside the empire.
After experimentation in the early 1860s, the famous Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was arrived at, by which the so-called Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary was set up. In this system, the Kingdom of Hungary was given sovereignty and a parliament, with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands.

Gyula Andrássy

AndrássyCount AndrássyCount Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka
According to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself."
In March 1866, he was elected as president of the sub-committee appointed by the parliamentary commission to draw up the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 between Austria and Hungary.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
Under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, headed by a single monarch who reigned as Emperor of Austria in the Austrian half of the empire, and as King of Hungary in Kingdom of Hungary. In the Middle Ages, the Duchy of Austria was an autonomous state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, and the Kingdom of Hungary was a sovereign state outside the empire. The agreement also restored the old historic constitution of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the Kingdom of Hungary, several ethnic minorities faced increased pressures of Magyarization.
The desired political changes of 1848 were again suppressed until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Ferenc Deák

DeákDeák FerencDeák Party
According to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself."
He supported the "Compromise" (Ausgleich or Kiegyezés) of 1867, which incorporated these ideas, with all his strength, leading the delegation that signed the actual accord.

Diet of Hungary

DietHungarian DietLast Diet
The Austrian constitution was accepted by the Imperial Diet of Austria, in which Hungary had no representation and traditionally had no legislative power in the territory of Kingdom of Hungary; still, it also tried to abolish the Diet of Hungary, which existed as the legislative power in Hungary since the late 12th century.
As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867.

Battle of Mohács

MohácsMohács disaster1526 Battle of Mohács
King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia had no legitimate heir and died young in the Battle of Mohács.
Only in the 19th century would Hungary regain some degree of autonomy, with full independence coming only after the First World War; however, the Treaty of Trianon awarded much of its former land to other states (such as Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia), and Hungary has never regained its former political power.

Pragmatic Sanction of 1723

Deák believed that while Hungary had the right to full internal independence, questions of defence and foreign affairs were "common" to both Austria and Hungary, under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1723.
It was a protracted affair but had lasting consequences, especially in relation to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Common Army

Austro-Hungarian ArmyAustrian ArmyAustrian Imperial Army
The Hungarian parliament was re-established (which was the legislative power in Hungary since the 12th century), thus Austria and Hungary had separate parliaments again. Each region had its own government, headed by its own prime minister. The "dual monarchy" consisted of the emperor-king, and the common ministers of foreign affairs, defence, and a finance ministry only for the Common Army, navy and diplomatic expenditures. The Royal Hungarian Honvéd was restored, and the Imperial-Royal Landwehr was created, but both states had to continue to finance the Common Army, much larger than both. A common Austro-Hungarian War Ministry was formed immediately for the large Common Army, but it had no right to command directly the smaller Landwehr and the Honvéd armies, which were respectively placed under the direct control of the separate Austrian and Hungarian Ministries of Defence. The Austrian and Hungarian Ministers of Defence were not placed under the command and jurisdiction of the Common War Ministry; they were subordinated only to their own prime ministers and the respective parliaments in Vienna and Budapest.
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 15 March 1867 the army and navy were no longer institutions of a single state, but of the new double monarchy, which was composed of two countries on an equal footing: the Empire of Austria (Cisleithania) and the no longer subordinate Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania); the two being joined together in a real union.

Royal Hungarian Honvéd

honvédHonvédségHungarian
The Royal Hungarian Honvéd was restored, and the Imperial-Royal Landwehr was created, but both states had to continue to finance the Common Army, much larger than both. A common Austro-Hungarian War Ministry was formed immediately for the large Common Army, but it had no right to command directly the smaller Landwehr and the Honvéd armies, which were respectively placed under the direct control of the separate Austrian and Hungarian Ministries of Defence. The Austrian and Hungarian Ministers of Defence were not placed under the command and jurisdiction of the Common War Ministry; they were subordinated only to their own prime ministers and the respective parliaments in Vienna and Budapest.
When the armed forces were re-established following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Landwehr of the so-called Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, received the Hungarian name Honvédség (pronounced "hon-véd-shég", with the é as in French), literally "homeland defence" and, in practice, a territorial army.

Imperial-Royal Landwehr

k.k. LandwehrLandwehrarmy
The Royal Hungarian Honvéd was restored, and the Imperial-Royal Landwehr was created, but both states had to continue to finance the Common Army, much larger than both. A common Austro-Hungarian War Ministry was formed immediately for the large Common Army, but it had no right to command directly the smaller Landwehr and the Honvéd armies, which were respectively placed under the direct control of the separate Austrian and Hungarian Ministries of Defence. The Austrian and Hungarian Ministers of Defence were not placed under the command and jurisdiction of the Common War Ministry; they were subordinated only to their own prime ministers and the respective parliaments in Vienna and Budapest.
After the Austrian Empire had lost the war against Prussia, the Kingdom of Hungary succeeding in gaining its independence from the Austria in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867.

Magyarization

MagyarizedMagyarizemagyarised
In the Kingdom of Hungary, several ethnic minorities faced increased pressures of Magyarization.
The term specifically applies to the policies that were enforced in the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary in the 19th century and early 20th century, especially after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and in particular after the rise in 1871 of the Count Menyhért Lónyay as head of the Hungarian government.

German Question

Greater GermanyGroßdeutschlandGreater German
After a period of Greater German ambitions, when Austria tried to establish itself as the leading German power, Austria again needed to redefine itself to maintain unity in the face of nationalism.
After the Peace of Prague, the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, now at the helm of German politics, pursued the expulsion of Austria and managed to unite all German states except Austria under Prussian leadership, while the Habsburg lands were shaken by ethnic nationalist conflicts, only superficially resolved with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust

Count BeustBeustFriedrich Ferdinand Graf von Beust
Imperial Chancellor Beust quickly negotiated the Compromise with the Hungarian leaders.
[...] Beust deluded himself that he could rebuild both the [Germanic Federation] and the Holy Roman Empire and negotiated the Ausgleich as a necessary preliminary for the revanche on Prussia.

Austro-Prussian War

War of 1866Austro-PrussianGerman war
In 1866, Austria was completely defeated in the Austro-Prussian War.
Austria: Surrendered the province of Venetia to France, but then Napoleon III handed it to Italy as agreed in a secret treaty with Prussia. Austria then lost all official influence over member states of the former German Confederation. Austria’s defeat was a telling blow to Habsburg rule; the Empire was transformed via the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 into the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary in the following year. Additionally Austria was also excluded from Germany.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Archduke Franz FerdinandFranz FerdinandArchduke Ferdinand
In a letter of February 1, 1913, to Foreign Minister Berchtold, Archduke Franz Ferdinand said that "irredentism in our country ... will cease immediately if our Slavs are given a comfortable, fair and good life" instead of being trampled on (as they were being trampled on by the Hungarians).
He advocated granting greater autonomy to ethnic groups within the Empire and addressing their grievances, especially the Czechs in Bohemia and the south Slavic peoples in Croatia and Bosnia, who had been left out of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Dual monarchy

Austria-HungarydualismImperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

Uncodified constitution

uncodifiedunwritten constitutionunwritten
The agreement also restored the old historic constitution of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Hungarian Revolution of 1848

Hungarian Revolution1848 RevolutionRevolution of 1848
One was to regain the traditional status (both legal and political) of the Hungarian state, which was lost after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.