Austro-Prussian War

War of 1866Seven Weeks' WarAustro-PrussianSeven Weeks WarGerman WarAustro-Prussian War of 1866war1866 warAustrian-Prussian WarThird Independence War
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.wikipedia
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Kingdom of Italy

ItalyItalianFascist Italy
Prussia had also allied with the Kingdom of Italy, linking this conflict to the Third Independence War of Italian unification. The war also resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia.
Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory.

Third Italian War of Independence

Third War of Italian IndependenceThird War of IndependenceThird Italian Independence War
Prussia had also allied with the Kingdom of Italy, linking this conflict to the Third Independence War of Italian unification.
The conflict paralleled the Austro-Prussian War and, like that war, ended in an Austrian defeat, with Austria conceding the region of Venetia to Italy.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary.

Kingdom of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianPrussian court
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states, Prussia and Austria.

German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman states
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The Confederation was finally dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.

Austria–Prussia rivalry

German dualismdualismAustria
The Austro-Prussian War was part of the wider rivalry between Austria and Prussia, and resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states.
Both opponents first met in the Silesian Wars and Seven Years' War during the middle 18th century until the conflict's culmination in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Otto von Bismarck

BismarckChancellor BismarckPrince Bismarck
Bismarck made an alliance with Italy on 8 April, committing it to the war if Prussia entered one against Austria within three months, which was an obvious incentive for Bismarck to go to war with Austria within three months to divert Austrian strength away from Prussia.
He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark, Austria, and France.

Austria

AUTAustrianRepublic of Austria
Aside from five years (1740–1745), the Habsburg family, whose personal territory was Austria, controlled the Emperorship from 1440 to 1806, although it became increasingly ceremonial only as Austria found itself at war at certain times with other states within the Empire, such as Prussia, which in fact defeated Austria during the War of Austrian Succession to seize the state of Silesia in 1742.
Following the Austro-Prussian War and the compromise with Hungary, the Dual Monarchy was established.

Unification of Germany

German unificationunificationunified Germany
The major result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony, and impetus towards the unification of all of the northern German states in a Kleindeutsches Reich that excluded the German Austria.
Second, the unification of Italy provided Prussia an ally against Austria in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph IFranz JosephEmperor Franz Joseph
In Austria Emperor Franz Joseph saw the need to reduce growing ethnic strife by uniting the several nationalities against a foreign enemy.
Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague (23 August 1866) settled the German Question in favour of Prussia, which prevented the Unification of Germany from occurring under the House of Habsburg.

Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig HolsteinSchleswigSH
The war erupted as a result of the dispute between Prussia and Austria over the administration of Schleswig-Holstein, which the two of them had conquered from Denmark and agreed to jointly occupy at the end of the Second Schleswig War in 1864.
Also following the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stipulated that the people of Northern Schleswig would be consulted in a referendum on whether to remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule.

Lorenz rifle

Joseph LorenzLorenz Infantry Rifle M1854users
Prussian infantry were equipped with the Dreyse needle gun, a bolt-action rifle capable of far more rapid fire than the muzzle-loading Lorenz rifles of the Austrian army.
It was used in the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 and the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, and also featured prominently in the American Civil War.

Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

Kingdom of Lombardy-VenetiaLombardy-VenetiaLombardy–Venetia
The war also resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia.
However, remaining Venetia and Mantua likewise fell to the Kingdom of Italy in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, by the 1866 Peace of Prague.

German nationalism

German nationalistGerman nationalistsnationalist
Partly in reaction to the triumphant French nationalism of Napoleon I and partly as an organic feeling of commonality glorified during the Romantic era, German nationalism became a potent force during this period.
Prussia achieved hegemony over Germany in the "wars of unification": the Second Schleswig War (1864), the Austro-Prussian War (which effectively excluded Austria from Germany) (1866), and the Franco-Prussian War (1870).

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
The Austrian army under Ludwig von Benedek in Bohemia (the present-day Czech Republic) might previously have been expected to enjoy the advantage of the "central position", by being able to concentrate on successive attacking armies strung out along the frontier, but the quicker Prussian concentration nullified this advantage.
In 1866 Austria was defeated by Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War (see also Battle of Königgrätz and Peace of Prague).

Italian unification

Risorgimentounification of ItalyKingdom of Italy
Prussia had also allied with the Kingdom of Italy, linking this conflict to the Third Independence War of Italian unification.
In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Austria contested with Prussia the position of leadership among the German states.

War of the Austrian Succession

War of Austrian SuccessionAustrian War of SuccessionAustrian Succession
Aside from five years (1740–1745), the Habsburg family, whose personal territory was Austria, controlled the Emperorship from 1440 to 1806, although it became increasingly ceremonial only as Austria found itself at war at certain times with other states within the Empire, such as Prussia, which in fact defeated Austria during the War of Austrian Succession to seize the state of Silesia in 1742.
A new advance of Prince Charles quickly led to the Battle of Soor on 30 September 1745, fought on ground destined to be famous in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Duchy of Nassau

NassauDuke of NassauCounty of Nassau
Southern states such as, Baden, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau also joined with Austria.
After being occupied and annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866 following the Austro-Prussian War, it was incorporated into the Province of Hesse-Nassau.

Kingdom of Hanover

HanoverHanoverianKingdom of Hannover
Those that sided with Austria included the Kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, and Hanover.
Hanover backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War and was conquered by Prussia in 1866, subsequently becoming a Prussian province.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
Aside from five years (1740–1745), the Habsburg family, whose personal territory was Austria, controlled the Emperorship from 1440 to 1806, although it became increasingly ceremonial only as Austria found itself at war at certain times with other states within the Empire, such as Prussia, which in fact defeated Austria during the War of Austrian Succession to seize the state of Silesia in 1742.
The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein, with Bismarck using proposed injustices as the reason for war.

Electorate of Hesse

Hesse-KasselHesseKurhessen
Southern states such as, Baden, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau also joined with Austria. On 15 June Bismarck offered territorial compensation in the Grand Duchy of Hesse to the Electorate of Hesse, if Elector Frederick William were to ally with Prussia.
It consisted of several detached territories to the north of Frankfurt, which survived until the state was annexed by Prussia in 1866 following the Austro-Prussian War.

Helmuth von Moltke the Elder

Helmuth von MoltkeMoltkeHelmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke
(The two most important personalities within the Prussian army were the War Minister Albrecht Graf von Roon and Chief of the General Staff Helmuth Graf von Moltke.) Taylor suggested that Bismarck was hoping to force Austrian leaders into concessions in Germany, rather than provoke war.
Moltke planned and led the successful military operations during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Kingdom of Württemberg

WürttembergKing of WürttembergKgdm Württemberg
Those that sided with Austria included the Kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, and Hanover.
In 1866, Württemberg took up arms on behalf of Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, but three weeks after the Battle of Königgrätz (3 July 1866), the allies suffered a comprehensive defeat at the Battle of Tauberbischofsheim.

Frederick William, Elector of Hesse

Frederick WilliamFrederick William IFrederick William I, Elector of Hesse
On 15 June Bismarck offered territorial compensation in the Grand Duchy of Hesse to the Electorate of Hesse, if Elector Frederick William were to ally with Prussia.
In the Austro-Prussian War (1866) he chose the side of Austria.

Alexander von Mensdorff-Pouilly, Prince von Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg

Alexander von Mensdorff-PouillyAlexander Graf von Mensdorff-PouillyAlexander de Mensdorff-Pouilly
On 22 February 1866, Count Karolyi, Austrian ambassador in Berlin, sent a dispatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Alexander Mensdorff-Pouilly.
After Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Mensdorff-Pouilly resigned his functions in November of that year.