Austroasiatic languageswikipedia
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
AustroasiaticMon–KhmerAustroasiatic languageMon-KhmerAustroasiatic language familyMon–Khmer languageAustro-AsiaticAustroasiatic familyAustro-Asiatic languageMon-Khmer people

Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively).
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

Khmer language

KhmerCambodianKhmer (Cambodian)
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively). During the Iron Age about 2,500 B.P., relatively young Austroasiatic branches in Indochina such as Vietic, Katuic, Pearic, and Khmer were formed, while the more internally diverse Bahnaric branch (dating to about 3,000 B.P.) underwent more extensive internal diversification.
With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese).

Mon language

MonPeguanMon-speaking
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively).
The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar.

Bangladesh

BangladeshBangladeshiPeople's Republic of Bangladesh
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration.

Munda languages

MundaMunda, Munda PatarMunda language
These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as Mon–Khmer and Munda.
They constitute a branch of the Austroasiatic language family, which means they are related to languages such as Mon and Khmer languages and Vietnamese, as well as minority languages in Thailand, Laos and Southern China.

Sino-Tibetan languages

Sino-TibetanSino-Tibetan languageSino-Tibetan language family
They appear to be the extant autochthonous languages of Southeast Asia (if Andaman islands are not included), with the neighboring Indo-Aryan, Kra–Dai, Dravidian, Austronesian, and Sino-Tibetan languages being the result of later migrations.
However, the reconstruction of the family is much less developed than for families such as Indo-European or Austroasiatic.

Wa State

WaWa Special Region 2
In Myanmar, the Wa language is the de facto official language of Wa State.
The name Wa derives from the Wa ethnic group, who speak a language in the Austroasiatic family of languages.

Minor syllable

sesquisyllabicminor syllablesesquisyllable
Regarding word structure, Austroasiatic languages are well known for having an iambic "sesquisyllabic" pattern, with basic nouns and verbs consisting of an initial, unstressed, reduced minor syllable followed by a stressed, full syllable.
Minor syllable is a term used primarily in the description of Mon-Khmer languages, where a word typically consists of a reduced (minor) syllable followed by a full tonic or stressed syllable.

Khasi–Khmuic languages

Khasi–KhmuicKhasi–Palaungic branchKhasi–Palaungic
However, one recent classification posits three groups (Munda, Nuclear Mon-Khmer and Khasi–Khmuic) while another has abandoned Mon–Khmer as a taxon altogether, making it synonymous with the larger family.
The Khasi–Khmuic languages are a primary branch of the Austroasiatic language family of Southeast Asia in the classification of Diffloth (2005).

Proto-Austroasiatic language

Proto-AustroasiaticProto-Mon–Khmer
Much work has been done on the reconstruction of Proto-Mon–Khmer in Harry L. Shorto's Mon–Khmer Comparative Dictionary.
The Proto-Austroasiatic language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austroasiatic languages.

Katuic languages

KatuicKatuic languageKatuic speakers
is better preserved in the Katuic languages, which Sidwell has specialized in. Sidwell (2011) suggests that the likely homeland of Austroasiatic is the middle Mekong, in the area of the Bahnaric and Katuic languages (approximately where modern Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia come together), and that the family is not as old as frequently assumed, dating to perhaps 2000 BCE. During the Iron Age about 2,500 B.P., relatively young Austroasiatic branches in Indochina such as Vietic, Katuic, Pearic, and Khmer were formed, while the more internally diverse Bahnaric branch (dating to about 3,000 B.P.) underwent more extensive internal diversification.
The fifteen Katuic languages form a branch of the Austroasiatic languages spoken by about 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia.

Vietic languages

VieticVietic branchViet-Muong
During the Iron Age about 2,500 B.P., relatively young Austroasiatic branches in Indochina such as Vietic, Katuic, Pearic, and Khmer were formed, while the more internally diverse Bahnaric branch (dating to about 3,000 B.P.) underwent more extensive internal diversification.
The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family.

Bahnaric languages

BahnaricNorth BahnaricNorth
During the Iron Age about 2,500 B.P., relatively young Austroasiatic branches in Indochina such as Vietic, Katuic, Pearic, and Khmer were formed, while the more internally diverse Bahnaric branch (dating to about 3,000 B.P.) underwent more extensive internal diversification.
The Bahnaric languages are a group of about thirty Austroasiatic languages spoken by about 700,000 people in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.

Khasi language

Khasi KhasiKhasi – Garo
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.

Pearic languages

PearicPearic language
During the Iron Age about 2,500 B.P., relatively young Austroasiatic branches in Indochina such as Vietic, Katuic, Pearic, and Khmer were formed, while the more internally diverse Bahnaric branch (dating to about 3,000 B.P.) underwent more extensive internal diversification.
The Pearic languages are a group of endangered languages of the Eastern Mon–Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family, spoken by Pear people (the Por, the Samré, the Samray, the Suoy, and the Chong) living in western Cambodia and southeastern Thailand.

Palaungic languages

PalaungicPalaungic languagePalaungic-speaking
The nearly thirty Palaungic or Palaung–Wa languages form a branch of the Austroasiatic languages.

Aslian languages

AslianOrang AsliAslian language
Subsequently, Sidwell (2015a: 179) proposed that Nicobarese subgroups with Aslian, just as how Khasian and Palaungic subgroup with each other.
The Aslian languages are a family of Austroasiatic languages spoken on the Malay Peninsula.

Khmuic languages

KhmuicKhmuic language
The Khmuic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic languages spoken mostly in northern Laos, as well as in neighboring northern Vietnam and southern Yunnan, China.

Nicobarese languages

NicobareseNicobariclanguages of the Nicobar islands
Subsequently, Sidwell (2015a: 179) proposed that Nicobarese subgroups with Aslian, just as how Khasian and Palaungic subgroup with each other.
The Nicobarese languages, or Nicobaric languages, form an isolated group of about half a dozen closely related Austroasiatic languages, spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands of India.

Haplogroup O-K18

O-M95haplogroup O2a1-M95Haplogroup O-M95
This family tree is consistent with recent studies of migration of Y-Chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95.
It is best known for the high frequency of its O-M95 subclade among populations of Southeast Asia and among speakers of Austroasiatic languages in South Asia.

Shompen language

ShompensiiShom Peng
These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as Mon–Khmer and Munda.
However, Roger Blench and Paul Sidwell demonstrate that it is an Austroasiatic language, though they suggest that it might constitute a distinct branch of that family.

Mangic languages

PakanicMangicSouthern China
The Mangic languages, which include the Pakanic languages, constitute a branch of Austroasiatic languages.

Bolyu language

BolyuPalyuLai
The Bolyu language (autonym: '; ; also known as Paliu, Palyu, or Lai''' 俫语, 徕语) is an Austroasiatic language of the Pakanic branch (Sidwell 1995).

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
However, some Austroasiatic languages have lost the register contrast by evolving more diphthongs or in a few cases, such as Vietnamese, tonogenesis.
Austroasiatic (such as Khmer and Mon) and Austronesian (such as Malay) languages are mostly non tonal with the rare exception of Austroasiatic languages like Vietnamese, and Austronesian languages like Cèmuhî and Utsul.

Monic languages

Monic
The Monic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family descended from the Old Monic language of the kingdom of Dvaravati in what is now central Thailand.