Austroasiatic languages

AustroasiaticMon–KhmerAustroasiatic languageMon-KhmerAustroasiatic language familyAustro-AsiaticMon–Khmer languageAustroasiatic familyAustro-Asiatic languageAustroasiatic-speaking
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.wikipedia
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Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively).
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

Khmer language

KhmerCambodianKhmer (Cambodian)
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively).
With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese).

Bangladesh

🇧🇩People's Republic of BangladeshBangladeshi
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration.

Mon language

MonMon-speakingPeguan
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively).
The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar.

Santali language

SantaliSanthali Santhali
Santali is recognized as a regional language of India.
Santali (Ol Chiki: ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ) is a language in the Santal subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Mizoram, Odisha, Tripura and West Bengal.

Munda languages

MundaMunda, Munda PatarMunda language
These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as Mon–Khmer and Munda.
They constitute a branch of the Austroasiatic language family, which means they are related to languages such as Mon and Khmer languages and Vietnamese, as well as minority languages in Thailand and Laos and the minority Mangic languages of South China.

Wa State

WaWa Special Region 2
In Myanmar, the Wa language is the de facto official language of Wa State.
The name Wa derives from the Wa ethnic group, who speak a language in the Austroasiatic family of languages.

Khasi–Khmuic languages

Khasi–KhmuicKhasi–PalaungicKhasi–Palaungic branch
However, one recent classification posits three groups (Munda, Nuclear Mon-Khmer and Khasi–Khmuic) while another has abandoned Mon–Khmer as a taxon altogether, making it synonymous with the larger family.
The Khasi–Khmuic languages are a primary branch of the Austroasiatic language family of Southeast Asia in the classification of Diffloth (2005).

Sino-Tibetan languages

Sino-TibetanSino-Tibetan languageSino-Tibetan language family
They appear to be the extant autochthonous languages of Southeast Asia (if Andaman islands are not included), with the neighboring Indo-Aryan, Kra–Dai, Dravidian, Austronesian, and Sino-Tibetan languages being the result of later migrations.
However, the reconstruction of the family is much less developed than for families such as Indo-European or Austroasiatic.

Katuic languages

KatuicKatuic languageKatuic speakers
is better preserved in the Katuic languages, which Sidwell has specialized in. Sidwell (2011) suggests that the likely homeland of Austroasiatic is the middle Mekong, in the area of the Bahnaric and Katuic languages (approximately where modern Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia come together), and that the family is not as old as frequently assumed, dating to perhaps 2000 BCE.
The fifteen Katuic languages form a branch of the Austroasiatic languages spoken by about 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia.

Shompen language

ShompenShom Pengsii
These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as Mon–Khmer and Munda.
Although Shompen traditionally lumped in with other Nicobarese languages, which form a branch of the Austroasiatic language family, there was little evidence to support this assumption during the 20th century.

Yangtze

Yangtze RiverYangziChang Jiang
He show with his analysis that the homeland of Austroasiatic is somewhere near the Yangtze.
Krong was probably a word in the Austroasiatic language of local peoples such as the Yue.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
However, some Austroasiatic languages have lost the register contrast by evolving more diphthongs or in a few cases, such as Vietnamese, tonogenesis.
Austroasiatic (such as Khmer and Mon) and Austronesian (such as Malay Javanese, Tagalog, and Maori) languages are mostly non tonal with the rare exception of Austroasiatic languages like Vietnamese, and Austronesian languages like Cèmuhî and Tsat.

Mainland Southeast Asia

IndochinamainlandIndochinese Peninsula
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Mainland Southeast Asia contrasts with Maritime Southeast Asia, mainly through the division of largely land-based lifestyles in Indochina and the sea-based lifestyles of the Malay and Philippine archipelagos, as well as the dividing line between the Austroasiatic, Tai–Kadai, Sino-Tibetan languages (spoken in Mainland Southeast Asia) and Austronesian languages (spoken in Maritime Southeast Asia).

Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language family
They appear to be the extant autochthonous languages of Southeast Asia (if Andaman islands are not included), with the neighboring Indo-Aryan, Kra–Dai, Dravidian, Austronesian, and Sino-Tibetan languages being the result of later migrations.
A link with the Austroasiatic languages in an 'Austric' phylum is based mostly on typological evidence.

Bahnaric languages

BahnaricNorth BahnaricNorth
Bahnaric
The Bahnaric languages are a group of about thirty Austroasiatic languages spoken by about 700,000 people in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.

Vietic languages

VieticViet-MuongVietic branch
Vietic (includes Vietnamese)
The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family.

Pearic languages

PearicPearic language
Pearic
The Pearic languages are a group of endangered languages of the Eastern Mon–Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family, spoken by Pear people (the Por, the Samré, the Samray, the Suoy, and the Chong) living in western Cambodia and southeastern Thailand.

India

🇮🇳IndianIND
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families.

Khasi language

Khasi Khasikha
Khasi (Meghalaya, India)
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.

Palaungic languages

PalaungicPalaungic languagePalaung-Wa
Palaungic
The nearly thirty Palaungic or Palaung–Wa languages form a branch of the Austroasiatic languages.

Aslian languages

AslianAslian languageOrang Asli
Aslian (Malaya)
The Aslian languages are a family of Austroasiatic languages spoken on the Malay Peninsula.

Khmuic languages

KhmuicKhmuic language
Khmuic
The Khmuic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic languages spoken mostly in northern Laos, as well as in neighboring northern Vietnam and southern Yunnan, China.

Harry Leonard Shorto

Harry L. ShortoH.L. Shorto
Much work has been done on the reconstruction of Proto-Mon–Khmer in Harry L. Shorto's Mon–Khmer Comparative Dictionary.
Harry Leonard Shorto (1919–1995) was a British philologist and linguist who specialized on the Mon language and Mon-Khmer studies.

Nicobarese languages

NicobareseNicobariclanguages of the Nicobar islands
Nicobarese (Nicobar Islands)
The Nicobarese languages, or Nicobaric languages, form an isolated group of about half a dozen closely related Austroasiatic languages, spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands of India.