Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language familyAustronesiaAustronesian familyAustronesian-speakingAustronesiansAustronesian linguisticsAustronesian-language speakerslinguistic
The Austronesian languages are a language family widely spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean.wikipedia
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Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalay-language
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog). Only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages, are indigenous to mainland Asia.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.

Indonesian language

IndonesianBahasa IndonesiaIndonesia
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).
It is a standardized variety of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries.

Tagalog language

TagalogTagalog-languageFilipino
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).
Tagalog ) is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

Javanese language

JavaneseOld JavaneseJavanese word
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).
Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages, but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify.

Filipino language

FilipinoTagalogSpoken languages
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).
It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines.

Malay Archipelago

MalayaIndonesian ArchipelagoIndo-Australian Archipelago
In 1706, the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland first observed similarities between the languages spoken in the Malay Archipelago and the Pacific Ocean.
The name was taken from the 19th-century European concept of a Malay race, later based on the distribution of Austronesian languages.

Niger–Congo languages

Niger–CongoNiger-CongoNiger–Congo language family
By the number of languages they contain, Austronesian and Niger–Congo are the two largest language families in the world.
It is generally considered to be the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages, ahead of Austronesian, although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language; the number of named Niger–Congo languages listed by Ethnologue is 1,540.

Malagasy language

MalagasyBetsimisarakamlg
Hawaiian, Rapa Nui, Maori and Malagasy (spoken on Madagascar) are the geographic outliers. Complete absence of final consonants is observed e.g. in Nias, Malagasy and many Oceanic languages.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.

Malayo-Polynesian languages

Malayo-PolynesianMalayo-Polynesian languageMalayo-Polynesian language group
All Austronesian languages spoken outside Taiwan (including its offshore Yami language) belong to the Malayo-Polynesian branch.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

Cham language

ChamEastern Cham languageWestern Cham language
The oldest inscription in the Cham language, the Đông Yên Châu inscription dated to the mid-6th century AD at the latest, is the first attestation of any Austronesian language.
Cham is a Malayo-Polynesian language of the Austronesian family, spoken by the Cham of Southeast Asia.

Oceanic languages

OceanicOceanic languageOceanic branch
Complete absence of final consonants is observed e.g. in Nias, Malagasy and many Oceanic languages.
The approximately 450 Oceanic languages are a branch of the Austronesian languages.

Nias language

Niasnia
Complete absence of final consonants is observed e.g. in Nias, Malagasy and many Oceanic languages.
The Nias language is an Austronesian language spoken on Nias Island and the Batu Islands off the west coast of Sumatra in Indonesia.

Hawaiian language

HawaiianHawaiian forHawaii
Hawaiian, Rapa Nui, Maori and Malagasy (spoken on Madagascar) are the geographic outliers.
Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language family.

Chamic languages

ChamicChamic languageAceh-Chamic
Only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages, are indigenous to mainland Asia.
The Chamic languages are a subgroup of Malayo-Sumbawan languages in the Austronesian family.

Taiwan

Republic of ChinaFormosaRepublic of China (Taiwan)
According to Robert Blust (1999), Austronesian is divided into several primary branches, all but one of which are found exclusively in Taiwan. Below are two charts comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Chams or Champa (in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo and Tuvalu.
They are believed to be the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aborigines, whose languages belong to the Austronesian language family, but show much greater diversity than the rest of the family, which spans a huge area from Maritime Southeast Asia west to Madagascar and east as far as New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island.

Robert Blust

Blust, RobertBlust
According to Robert Blust (1999), Austronesian is divided into several primary branches, all but one of which are found exclusively in Taiwan.
Blust specializes in the Austronesian languages and has made major contributions to the field of Austronesian linguistics.

Papua New Guinea

Papua-New GuineaPapua New GuineanPNG
However, extreme inventories are also found, such as Nemi (New Caledonia) with 43 consonants, or Northwest Mekeo (Papua New Guinea) with only 7 consonants.
A major migration of Austronesian-speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC.

Sasak language

Sasaksas
It is closely related to the Balinese and Sumbawa languages spoken on adjacent islands, and is part of the Austronesian language family.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
Below are two charts comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Chams or Champa (in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo and Tuvalu.
It connects speakers of the Austronesian languages in a common linguistic and genetic lineage, including the Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Islander Southeast Asians, Chams, Islander Melanesians, Micronesians, Polynesians, and the Malagasy people.

Proto-Austronesian language

Proto-AustronesianPANAustronesian
It also included a reconstruction of the Proto-Austronesian lexicon.
The Proto-Austronesian language (PAN) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austronesian languages, one of the world's major language families.

Papuan languages

Papuan languagePapuanNew Guinea
The Central Malayo-Polynesian languages are similar to each other not because of close genealogical relationships, but rather because they reflect strong substratum effects from non-Austronesian, Papuan languages.
The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.

Murutic languages

MuruticMurutTidong
Dyen’s classification was widely criticized and for the most part rejected (see e.g. ), but several of his lower-order subgroups are still accepted (e.g. the Cordilleran languages, the Bilic languages or the Murutic languages).
The Murutic languages are a family of half a dozen closely related Austronesian languages, spoken in the northern inland regions of Borneo by the Murut and Tidung.

Buginese language

BugineseBugisBugis language
There is a common drift to reduce the number of consonants which can appear in final position, e.g. Buginese, which only allows the two consonants /ŋ/ and /ʔ/ as finals, out of a total number of 18 consonants.
Buginese belongs to South Sulawesi subgroup of the Austronesian language family.

Bunun language

Bununbnn
The word for eye in many Austronesian languages is mata (from the most northerly Austronesian languages, Formosan languages such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori).
It is one of the Formosan languages, a geographic group of Austronesian languages, and is subdivided in five dialects: Isbukun, Takbunuaz, Takivatan, Takibaka and Takituduh.

Formosan languages

Formosan languageFormosanaboriginal languages
The word for eye in many Austronesian languages is mata (from the most northerly Austronesian languages, Formosan languages such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori). The Formosan languages of Taiwan are grouped into as many as nine first-order subgroups of Austronesian.
The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which are Austronesian.