Autism spectrum

autism spectrum disorderautisticautism spectrum disordersautismautistic spectrumautistic spectrum disorderASDautistic spectrum disordersautism-spectrum disorderautism spectrum disorders (ASD)
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of mental disorders of the neurodevelopmental type.wikipedia
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DSM-5

DSM-Vmental health disordersDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The DSM-5 redefined the autism spectrum disorders to encompass the previous diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder.
Notable changes in the DSM-5 include the reconceptualization of Asperger syndrome from a distinct disorder to an autism spectrum disorder; the elimination of subtypes of schizophrenia; the deletion of the "bereavement exclusion" for depressive disorders; the renaming of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria, along with a revised treatment plan; the inclusion of binge eating disorder as a discrete eating disorder; the renaming and reconceptualization of paraphilias to paraphilic disorders; the removal of the axis system; and the splitting of disorders not otherwise specified into other specified disorders and unspecified disorders.

Autism

autisticautistic disorderautistic children
It includes autism and Asperger syndrome.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), combines autism and less severe forms of the condition, including Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) into the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Neurodevelopmental disorder

neurodevelopmental disordersneurodevelopmentalneurodevelopmental disability
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of mental disorders of the neurodevelopmental type.

Spectrum disorder

spectrumschizophrenia spectrumpsychotic spectrum
Although the older term pervasive developmental disorder and the newer term autism spectrum disorder largely or entirely overlap, the earlier was intended to describe a specific set of diagnostic labels, whereas the latter refers to a postulated spectrum disorder linking various conditions.
A notable example of this trend is the autism spectrum, where conditions on this spectrum may now all be referred to as autism spectrum disorders.

Childhood disintegrative disorder

Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD)dementia infantilisDisintegrative disorder
The DSM-5 redefined the autism spectrum disorders to encompass the previous diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder. Some sources also include Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which share several signs with autism but may have unrelated causes; other sources differentiate them from ASD, but group all of the above conditions into the pervasive developmental disorders.
In May 2013, CDD, along with other sub-types of PDD (Asperger's syndrome, autism, and PDD-NOS), was fused into a single diagnostic term called "autism spectrum disorder" under the new DSM-5 manual.

Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

PDD-NOSatypical autismPDD not otherwise specified
The DSM-5 redefined the autism spectrum disorders to encompass the previous diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and childhood disintegrative disorder.
A pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is one of the four autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and also one of the five disorders classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD).

Savant syndrome

savantautistic savantidiot savant
There is also a unique form of autism called autistic savantism, where a child can display outstanding skills in music, art, and numbers with no practice.
Those with the condition generally have a neurodevelopmental disorder such as autism spectrum disorder or have a brain injury.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of mental disorders of the neurodevelopmental type.
Some examples include autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood.

Nonverbal autism

nonverbalcompletely nonverbalmute
In some cases, individuals remain completely nonverbal throughout their lives, although the accompanying levels of literacy and nonverbal communication skills vary.
It is estimated that 25% to 50% of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) never develop spoken language beyond a few words or utterances.

Rett syndrome

Rett's syndromeRettRett's Disorder
Some sources also include Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which share several signs with autism but may have unrelated causes; other sources differentiate them from ASD, but group all of the above conditions into the pervasive developmental disorders.
However, there may be improvement in behavior, with less irritability, crying, and autistic-like features.

MMR vaccine and autism

MMR vaccine controversyMMR vaccinecontroversy
In 1998 Andrew Wakefield led a fraudulent study that suggested that the MMR vaccine may cause autism.
The fraudulent research paper authored by Andrew Wakefield and published in The Lancet claimed to link the vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.

Eye contact

eye gazeeye-contactavoiding eye contact
ASD is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.
For example, those with autistic disorders or social anxieties may find eye contact to be particularly unsettling.

Pervasive developmental disorder

pervasive developmental disordersPDDPervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
Some sources also include Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which share several signs with autism but may have unrelated causes; other sources differentiate them from ASD, but group all of the above conditions into the pervasive developmental disorders.
The pervasive developmental disorders are autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PPD-NOS, i.e. all autism spectrum disorders), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Rett syndrome.

Theory of mind

theory of mind (ToM)theory of the mindtheory of other minds
In functional neuroimaging studies, when performing theory of mind and facial emotion response tasks, the median person on the autism spectrum exhibits less activation in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices of the brain than the median member of a properly sampled control population.
Deficits can occur in people with autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cocaine addiction, and brain damage suffered from alcohol's neurotoxicity, but not opiate addiction after prolonged abstinence.

Fragile X syndrome

Fragile Xfragile-X syndromeFragile-X
Some ASD is associated with clearly genetic conditions, like fragile X syndrome; however only around 2% of people with ASD have fragile X.
Of those with fragile X syndrome, prevalence of concurrent autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been estimated to be between 15 and 60%, with the variation due to differences in diagnostic methods and the high frequency of autistic features in individuals with fragile X syndrome not meeting the DSM criteria for an ASD.

Echolalia

echolalicechologiarepeating snippets people have said
They can also exhibit a condition called echolalia in which they respond to a question by repeating the inquiry instead of answering.
Echolalia can be an indicator of communication disorders in autism, but is neither unique to, nor synonymous with syndromes.

Valproate

valproic acidsodium valproateDepakote
These risk factors include maternal gestational diabetes, maternal and paternal age over 30, bleeding after first trimester, use of prescription medication (e.g. valproate) during pregnancy, and meconium in the amniotic fluid.
Maternal valproate use during pregnancy has been associated with a significantly higher probability of autism in the offspring.

Andrew Wakefield

In 1998 Andrew Wakefield led a fraudulent study that suggested that the MMR vaccine may cause autism.
On 28 February 1998, Wakefield was the lead author of a study of twelve children with autism that was published in The Lancet.

Epilepsy

epilepticseizure disorderepilepsies
Epilepsy is also more common in children with autism.

Tuberous sclerosis

tuberous sclerosis complexTSCBourneville's disease
People with TSC are frequently also diagnosed psychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and depressive disorder.

Asperger syndrome

Asperger's syndromeAspergerAsperger’s syndrome
It includes autism and Asperger syndrome.
As a milder autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it differs from other ASDs by relatively normal language and intelligence.

Down syndrome

Down's syndrometrisomy 21Downs Syndrome
In children with Down syndrome, mental illness occurs in nearly 30% with autism occurring in 5–10%.

Corpus callosum

spleniumgenu of the corpus callosumcallosal sulcus
Some research has reported an overall brain enlargement in autism, while others suggest abnormalities in several areas of the brain, including the frontal lobe, the mirror neuron system, the limbic system, the temporal lobe, and the corpus callosum.
Recent studies have also linked possible correlations between corpus callosum malformation and autism spectrum disorders.

Joint attention

gazejoint visual attentionshared attention
Communication deficits are generally characterized by impairments regarding joint attention and social reciprocity, challenges with verbal language cues, and poor nonverbal communication skills such as lack of eye contact and meaningful gestures and facial expressions.
Difficulties in establishing joint attention may partially account for differences in social abilities of children with developmental disorders (i.e. Autism spectrum disorders).

Special education

Special Schoolspecial educational needsspecial schools
Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills.
Special education includes learning disabilities (such as dyslexia), communication disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders (such as ADHD), physical disabilities (such as osteogenesis imperfecta, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, and Friedreich's ataxia), and developmental disabilities (such as autistic spectrum disorders including autism and Asperger syndrome and intellectual disability) and many other disabilities.