Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

ARMMMuslim MindanaoBangsamoroAutonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)A.R.M.M.an autonomous regionARMM 2ARMM Regional Assemblyautonomousautonomous government for the Bangsamoro people
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.wikipedia
390 Related Articles

Basilan

Basilan IslandBasilan CityBasilan Straits
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
The Province of Basilan (Chavacano: Provincia de Basilan; Tausug: Wilaya' sin Basilan; Yakan: Wilayah Basilanin) is an island province of the Philippines in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

Provinces of the Philippines

provinceprovincesprovince of the Philippines
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
The Cordillera Administrative Region, National Capital Region, MIMAROPA Region and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao do not have numerical designations.

Lanao del Sur

LanaoDarangen Epic Chantdel Sur
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
Lanao del Sur (Maranao and Iranun: Pagabagatan Ranao), officially the Province of Lanao del Sur, is a province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

Isabela, Basilan

Isabela CityIsabelaBasilan Chartered City, Philippines
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
While administratively the island province of Basilan is part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), Isabela City, where it served as its capital since the province's creation, itself is not part of this region, being instead placed under the Zamboanga Peninsula region.

Maguindanao

Maguindanao provincein the provinceMaguindanao Province, Philippines
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
Maguindanao (Maguindanaon: Prubinsya nu Magindanaw; Iranun: Perobinsia a Magindanao) is a province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

Island groups of the Philippines

Island groupisland groupsassociated islands
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
Islands are organized into three distinct island group according to regions: Regions I to V, CAR, and NCR are for Luzon, Regions VI to VIII are for the Visayas, and Regions IX to XIII and ARMM are for Mindanao.

Regions of the Philippines

Regionregionsadministrative region
It is the only region that has its own government.
Currently, the archipelagic republic of the Philippines is divided into 17 regions (16 administrative and one autonomous).

Autonomous regions of the Philippines

autonomous regionautonomous region of the PhilippinesPhilippine Autonomous Regions
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was proposed in 1976 during the Ferdinand Marcos administration and created on August 1, 1989 through Republic Act No. 6734 (otherwise known as the Organic Act) in pursuance with a constitutional mandate.

Shariff Kabunsuan

The ARMM previously included the province of Shariff Kabunsuan from its creation in 2006 until 16 July 2008, when Shariff Kabunsuan ceased to exist as a province after the Supreme Court of the Philippines declared the "Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 201", which created it, unconstitutional in Sema vs. COMELEC.
Shariff Kabunsuan was a short-lived province of the Philippines within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) that existed from 2006 to 2008.

Bangsamoro Organic Law

agreementpeace processRA 11054
On July 26, 2018, Aquino's successor, President Rodrigo Duterte, signed the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL), which paves way for the establishment of a new autonomous political entity in the area, the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
The Bangsamoro Organic Law (Republic Act No. 11054), also known as Bangsamoro Basic Law and often referred to by the acronym "BOL" and "BBL", is a Philippine law providing for the establishment of an autonomous political entity known as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, replacing the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

2019 Bangsamoro Autonomous Region creation plebiscite

plebiscitea plebisciteBangsamoro Autonomous Region creation plebiscite
ARMM was dissolved after the BOL was "deemed ratified" on January 25, 2019 following the January 21 plebiscite.
The first part was held on January 21 where voters from the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) voted in regards of the BOL's ratification and residents of Cotabato City and Isabela, Basilan voted for their cities' inclusion to the then-proposed BAR.

Cotabato City

CotabatoKuta WatoKuta Wato/Kota Bato
The region's de facto seat of government is Cotabato City, although this self-governing city is outside its jurisdiction. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
Traditionally resisting efforts for inclusion to the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao despite serving as the government center of the ARMM, the January 21, 2019 Bangsamoro Autonomous Region creation plebiscite resulted in the surprise ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law.

Philippines

🇵🇭FilipinoPhilippine
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), which is largely free from the national government.

Mindanao

southern PhilippinesRegion Xisland of Mindanao
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
| style="font-weight:bold;" | Autonomous Regionin MuslimMindanao

Moro National Liberation Front

MNLFMoro National Liberation Front (MNLF)Bangsamoro Republik
In the 1970s, escalating hostilities between government forces and the Moro National Liberation Front prompted President Ferdinand Marcos to issue a proclamation forming an Autonomous Region in the Southern Philippines.
In 1996, the MNLF signed a landmark peace agreement with the Philippine government that saw the creation of Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), an area composed of two mainland provinces and three island provinces in which the predominantly Muslim population enjoys a degree of self-rule.

Moro conflict

Islamic InsurgenciesFilipinosMoro insurgency
The violent armed struggle against the Japanese, Filipinos, Spanish, and Americans is considered by current Moro Muslim leaders as part of the four centuries long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation).
The agreement provided that Mindanao would remain a part of the Philippines, but 13 of its provinces would be under the autonomous government for the Bangsamoro people.

Sulu

Sulu ProvinceJoloProvince of Sulu
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
Sulu (Tausūg: Wilāya sin Lupa' Sūg) is a province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

Sema vs. COMELEC

Supreme Court casea casedecision on the unconstitutionality
The ARMM previously included the province of Shariff Kabunsuan from its creation in 2006 until 16 July 2008, when Shariff Kabunsuan ceased to exist as a province after the Supreme Court of the Philippines declared the "Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 201", which created it, unconstitutional in Sema vs. COMELEC.
It held that the Regional Assembly of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao does not have the power to create provinces and cities.

Cities of the Philippines

CityComponentcities
The region's de facto seat of government is Cotabato City, although this self-governing city is outside its jurisdiction. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM.
Being part of an administrative region different from the province: Isabela City functions as a component city of Basilan: its tax revenues are shared with the provincial government, its residents are eligible to both vote and run for provincial offices, and it is served by the provincial government and the Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Basilan with regard to provincially devolved services. However, by opting out of joining the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), Isabela City's residents are ineligible to vote and run for regional offices of the ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly, unlike the rest of Basilan. Regional services provided to Isabela City come from offices in Region IX based in Pagadian; the rest of Basilan is serviced by the ARMM based in Cotabato City. Isabela City, while not independent from its province, is this outside the jurisdiction of the ARMM, the region to which the rest of Basilan belongs. Regions are not the primary subnational administrative divisions of the Philippines, but rather the provinces.

Palawan

Palawan IslandPalawan PassagePalaweño
A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
In 2001, the residents of Palawan voted in a plebiscite to reject inclusion into an expanded Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

2001 Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao expansion and inclusion plebiscite

a plebiscite in the ARMMA plebiscite was held on August 14voted to join the ARMM in 2001
A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
In the Philippines, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) is the only autonomous region; as such it is the sole region with a regional government as prescribed by the Constitution of the Philippines.

Zamboanga City

ZamboangaCity of ZamboangaZamboanga City, Philippines
A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
On November 19, 2001, the Cabatangan Government Complex in Barangay Cabatangan, the seat of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, was raided by former MNLF fighters in protest of Misuari's ouster as Governor of the autonomous region in which they took residents hostage.

South Cotabato

Governor of South CotabatoSo'''''uth CotabatoSouth
A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
Regional offices were relocated to South Cotabato in accordance with EO 429 dated October 12, 1990, issued by President Corazon C. Aquino during the expansion of the newly created Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, and EO No. 36 dated September 19, 2001, issued by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo which says South Cotabato is to be transferred from Southern Mindanao region to Region XII and having the city of Koronadal as the regional center of Region XII.

Tawi-Tawi

BatubatuTawiTawi-Tawi Bay
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (الحكم الذاتي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated as ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Koronadal, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga to determine if their residents wished to be part of the ARMM. A plebiscite was held on August 14 in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay, and the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Kidapawan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Digos, Koronadal, Tacurong, and Zamboanga.
Tawi-Tawi (Tausug: Wilaya' sin Tawi-Tawi) is an island province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

Moro Islamic Liberation Front

MILFMoro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)civil war
On July 18, 2008, Hermogenes Esperon, peace advisor to then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, in his talks with Moro Islamic Liberation Front rebels in Malaysia, revealed the planned expansion of the region.
In January 1987, the MNLF accepted the Philippine government's offer of semi-autonomy of the regions in dispute, subsequently leading to the establishment of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao on 6 November 1990.