Autopsy

post-mortemautopsiespost mortemnecropsypostmortempost-mortem examinationnecropsiesautopsiedpostmortem examinationpost mortems
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.wikipedia
1,837 Related Articles

Dissection

dissecteddissectingdissect
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans.

Medical examiner

Chief Medical ExaminerM.E.medical examiners
In most cases, a medical examiner or coroner can determine cause of death and only a small portion of deaths require an autopsy.
A medical examiner is an official trained in pathology that investigates deaths that occur under unusual or suspicious circumstances, to perform post-mortem examinations, and in some jurisdictions to initiate inquests.

Death

mortalitydeceaseddead
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
An autopsy, also known as a postmortem examination or an obduction, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a human corpse to determine the cause and manner of a person's death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
A study that focused on myocardial infarction (heart attack) as a cause of death found significant errors of omission and commission, i.e. a sizable number cases ascribed to myocardial infarctions (MIs) were not MIs and a significant number of non-MIs were actually MIs.
These cases can be discovered later on electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests, or at autopsy after a person has died.

Manner of death

natural causes#Unnatural Death
An autopsy is frequently performed in cases of sudden death, where a doctor is not able to write a death certificate, or when death is believed to result from an unnatural cause.
In some cases an autopsy is performed, either due to general legal requirements, because the medical cause of death is uncertain, upon the request of family members or guardians, or because the circumstances of death were suspicious.

Coroner

Coroner's Courtcoroner's inquestmedical examiner
In most cases, a medical examiner or coroner can determine cause of death and only a small portion of deaths require an autopsy.
When the death is suspected to have been either sudden with unknown cause, violent, or unnatural, the coroner decides whether to hold a post-mortem examination and, if necessary, an inquest.

Inquests in England and Wales

inquestcoroner's inquestcoroner's treasure inquest
In 2004 in England and Wales, there were 514,000 deaths of which 225,500 were referred to the coroner.
Where the cause of death is unknown, the coroner may order a post mortem examination in order to determine whether the death was violent.

Diener

At many institutions the person responsible for handling, cleaning, and moving the body is called a diener, the German word for servant.
A diener assists a pathologist or physician during an autopsy completing tasks such as handling tools and supplies, preparation of the dead body before and after autopsy which includes organ disposal.

Forensic science

forensicforensicsforensic scientist
Forensic science involves the application of the sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system.
Bond's assessment was based on his own examination of the most extensively mutilated victim and the post mortem notes from the four previous canonical murders.

Cadaver

corpsecadaverscorpses
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

Molecular autopsy

Toxicology, biochemical tests or genetic testing/molecular autopsy often supplement these and frequently assist the pathologist in assigning the cause or causes of death.
When a traditional medical autopsy is not able to determine the sudden cause of death, molecular autopsy may help provide an alternative insight through the use of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing.

Death certificate

death certificatesdeathCertificate of Death
A large meta-analysis suggested that approximately one-third of death certificates are incorrect and that half of the autopsies performed produced findings that were not suspected before the person died.
In such cases, an autopsy is rarely performed.

Anatomical pathology

pathological anatomyanatomic pathologypathologist
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771), celebrated as the father of anatomical pathology, wrote the first exhaustive work on pathology, De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (The Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy, 1769).
Over the last century, surgical pathology has evolved tremendously: from historical examination of whole bodies (autopsy) to a more modernized practice, centered on the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer to guide treatment decision-making in oncology.

Mummy

mummiesmummifiedmummification
Around 3000 BCE, ancient Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to practice the removal and examination of the internal organs of humans in the religious practice of mummification.
A long incision located on the right abdominal wall, and the absence of internal organs, indicated that the body had been eviscerated post-mortem, possibly in an effort to preserve the remains.

Virtopsy

The name is a portmanteau of 'virtual' and 'autopsy' and is a trademark registered to Prof. Richard Dirnhofer (de), the former head of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the University of Bern, Switzerland.

Rudolf Virchow

VirchowRudolph VirchowRudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow
The 19th-century medical researcher Rudolf Virchow, in response to a lack of standardization of autopsy procedures, established and published specific autopsy protocols (one such protocol still bears his name).
He developed the first systematic method of autopsy, and introduced hair analysis in forensic investigation.

Murder book

Typically, murder books include crime scene photographs and sketches, autopsy and forensic reports, transcripts of investigators' notes, and witness interviews.

Embalming

embalmedembalmerembalm
Then the body may be wrapped in a shroud, and it is common for relatives to not be able to tell the procedure has been done when the body is viewed in a funeral parlor after embalming.
In certain instances a funeral director will request a specific style of clothing, such as a collared shirt or blouse, to cover traumatic marks or autopsy incisions.

Carl von Rokitansky

Carl Freiherr von RokitanskyBaron Carl von RokitanskyKarl von Rokitansky
In the mid-1800s, Carl von Rokitansky and colleagues at the Second Vienna Medical School began to undertake dissections as a means to improve diagnostic medicine.
Rokitansky also developed a method of autopsy which consisted mainly of in situ dissection.

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
Toxicology, biochemical tests or genetic testing/molecular autopsy often supplement these and frequently assist the pathologist in assigning the cause or causes of death. Autopsies are usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (United States) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (as in a general examination or an autopsy).

Giovanni Battista Morgagni

MorgagniGiambattista MorgagniGiovanni Morgagni
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771), celebrated as the father of anatomical pathology, wrote the first exhaustive work on pathology, De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (The Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy, 1769).
His 1769 work described the post mortem findings of air in cerebral circulation and surmised this was the cause of death.

Physical examination

physical exammedical examinationexamination
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

Injury

traumainjuriesphysical trauma
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

Cause of death

mortalitycauses of deathcause
For example, a forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes.