Autosome

autosomalautosomal DNAautosomesatDNAautosomicautosomal chromosomeaDNAautosomal chromosomesautosomal pairsAutosomally
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).wikipedia
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Sex chromosome

sex chromosomesallosomesex chromosomal
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total).
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome ) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.

Ploidy

diploidhaploid2n
The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have the same morphology, unlike those in allosome pairs which may have different structures. For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total).
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)).

Human

humanshuman beinghumanity
For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total).
Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

Y chromosome

Y-chromosomeYY-DNA
By contrast, the allosome pair consists of two X chromosomes in females or one X and one Y chromosome in males.
The X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, termed autosomes, when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" – simply possessing this allele caused the organism to be male.

Aneuploidy

aneuploidaneuploidiesdisomy
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.
Most cases of aneuploidy result in miscarriage and the most common extra autosomal chromosomes among live births are 21, 18 and 13.

Karyotype

karyotypingkaryogramFN
These chromosomes are typically viewed as karyograms for easy comparison.
So, in normal diploid organisms, autosomal chromosomes are present in two copies.

Chromosome 1

1first chromosomehuman chromosome 1
Fetuses with aneuploidy of gene-rich chromosomes—such as chromosome 1—never survive to term, and fetuses with aneuploidy of gene-poor chromosomes—such as chromosome 21— are still miscarried over 23% of the time.
Humans have two copies of chromosome 1, as they do with all of the autosomes, which are the non-sex chromosomes.

Chromosome 21

2121st chromosomechromosomes, human, pair 21
Fetuses with aneuploidy of gene-rich chromosomes—such as chromosome 1—never survive to term, and fetuses with aneuploidy of gene-poor chromosomes—such as chromosome 21— are still miscarried over 23% of the time.
Chromosome 21 is both the smallest human autosome and chromosome, with 48 million nucleotides (the building material of DNA) representing about 1.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiveautosomal dominantrecessive
Autosomal genetic disorders which exhibit Mendelian inheritance can be inherited either in an autosomal dominant or recessive fashion.
For genes on an autosome (any chromosome other than a sex chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Dominance is a key concept in Mendelian inheritance and classical genetics.

Pseudoautosomal region

pseudoautosomalPAR1pseudoautosomal regions
Pseudoautosomal region
The pseudoautosomal regions get their name because any genes within them (so far at least 29 have been found) are inherited just like any autosomal genes.

Genetic disorder

genetic diseasegenetic disordersgenetic diseases
Genetic disorder
The divisions between recessive and dominant types are not "hard and fast", although the divisions between autosomal and X-linked types are (since the latter types are distinguished purely based on the chromosomal location of the gene).

Chromosome 17

1717phuman chromosome 17
TDF functions by activating the SOX9 gene on chromosome 17, so mutations of the SOX9 gene can cause humans with an ordinary Y chromosome to develop as females.

Gene dosage

dosagegene copydosage-dependent
Unlike single gene disorders, diseases caused by aneuploidy are the result of improper gene dosage, not nonfunctional gene product.
In eukaryotes, most genes found in the cell are expressed as autosomal genes (see autosome) and are found in two copies, alterations to this two-copy gene dosage is significantly associated with quantitative or qualitative phenotype traits and is linked to many genetic health problems such as those associated with spinal muscular atrophy and Down syndrome.

Homologous chromosome

homologshomologous chromosomeshomologous
Homologous chromosome
Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes, but there are only 22 pairs of homologous autosomal chromosomes.

Chromosome 13

13chromosome 13q34chromosomes, human, pair 13
For example, the karyogram of someone with Patau Syndrome would show that they possess three copies of chromosome 13.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total).

X chromosome

Xchromosome XX-chromosome
By contrast, the allosome pair consists of two X chromosomes in females or one X and one Y chromosome in males.

XYY syndrome

47,XYYXYYxyy karyotype
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.

Klinefelter syndrome

47,XXYXXYextra X chromosome
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.

Triple X syndrome

47,XXXtrisomy XXXX
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.

Tetrasomy X

48, XXXXXXXX48, XXXX syndrome
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.

Pentasomy X

49, XXXXXXXXXX49, XXXXX syndrome
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.

XXYY syndrome

XXYY48, XXYY48,XXYY
Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.