Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliariesverbal auxiliarieshelper verbsauxiliary formsfull verbAVC
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.wikipedia
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Do-support

do''-supportauxiliary ''doinserted
– do is an auxiliary accompanying the main verb want, used here to form a question – see do-support.
Do-support (or do-insertion), in English grammar, is the use of the auxiliary verb do, including its inflected forms does and did, to form negated clauses and questions as well as other constructions in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required.

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Even languages that do not mark aspect morphologically or through auxiliary verbs, however, can convey such distinctions by the use of adverbs or other syntactic constructions.

English modal verbs

modal verbswouldshall
The modal verbs (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, and dare, need and ought when included) form a subclass of auxiliary verbs.
The modal verbs of English are a small class of auxiliary verbs used mostly to express modality (properties such as possibility, obligation, etc.).

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
An example is the verb have in the sentence I have finished my lunch. Here, the main verb is finish, and the auxiliary have helps to express the perfect aspect.
(There are also additional forms such as future perfect, conditional perfect, and so on.) The formation of the perfect in English, using forms of an auxiliary verb (have) together with the past participle of the main verb, is paralleled in a number of other modern European languages.

Voice (grammar)

voicevoicesmiddle voice
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb.

Modal verb

modalmodal auxiliariesmodal auxiliary
Modal verbs may or may not be classified as auxiliaries, depending on the language.
They are auxiliary verbs, which means they allow subject-auxiliary inversion and can take the negation not,

Verb

verbsv.action verb
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Grammatical tense is the use of auxiliary verbs or inflections to convey whether the action or state is before, simultaneous with, or after some reference point.

Uses of English verb forms

past progressivesimplefuture-in-the-past
| would 2 || future-in-the-past tense || After 1990, we would do that again.
Combinations (catenae) of such forms with auxiliary verbs, such as was going and would have gone

Passive voice

passivepassivizationpassives
d. Das wurde mehrmals gesagt. – wurde 'became' is an auxiliary used to build the passive voice in German.
The passive forms in Nynorsk are restricted to only be accompanied by an auxiliary verb, which is not the case in Swedish and Danish.

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject-auxiliary inversioninversioninversion of subject and auxiliary
The verbs listed in the previous section can be classified as auxiliaries based upon two diagnostics: they allow subject–auxiliary inversion (the type of inversion used to form questions etc.) and (equivalently) they can take not as a postdependent (a dependent that follows its head).
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.

Light verb

vector verblight verb constructionweak verb
The verbs do and have can also function as full verbs or as light verbs, which can be a source of confusion about their status.
While light verbs are similar to auxiliary verbs regarding their meaning contribution to the clauses in which they appear, light verbs fail the diagnostics that identify auxiliary verbs and are therefore distinct from auxiliaries.

Future tense

futureFUTfuture indicative
| will 2 || future tense || The sun will rise tomorrow at 6:03.
In many cases, an auxiliary verb is used, as in English, where futurity is often indicated by the modal auxiliary will (or shall). However, some languages combine such an auxiliary with the main verb to produce a simple (one-word, morphological) future tense.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Multi-word tense constructions often involve auxiliary verbs or clitics.

English verbs

English-edEnglish regular verbs
English verbs
Most combinations of tense, aspect, mood and voice are expressed periphrastically, using constructions with auxiliary verbs.

Linguistic modality

modalitymodalmodalities
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Cross-linguistically, modality can be expressed by a variety of means, such as auxiliary verbs as in the examples (2) and (3), verbal morphology (mood) or adverbs.

Verb phrase ellipsis

VP-ellipsisshortened sentencesellipsis
See the article on verb phrase ellipsis for examples.
In the types of VP-ellipsis considered here, which are features of English grammar, the elided VP must be a non-finite VP; it cannot be a finite VP. Further, the ellipsis must be introduced by an auxiliary verb (be, can, do, don't, could, have, may, might, shall, should, will, won't, would, etc.) or by the infinitive particle to.

Compound verb

complex predicatecompoundcompound verbs
Compound verb
They are also to be distinguished from sequences of main plus auxiliary verbs.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
The auxiliary verbs of a language form a closed class, i.e., there is a fixed, relatively small number of them.
auxiliary verbs

Tense–aspect–mood

TAMtensetense, aspect and mood
Tense–aspect–mood
Tense, aspect, and mood are usually indicated with separate invariant pre-verbal auxiliaries.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
Hence both do not qualify as separate predicates, but rather they form part of a predicate with another expression - usually with a full verb in the case of auxiliary verbs and usually with a noun in the case of light verbs.
These verb catenae generally contain a main verb and potentially one or more auxiliary verbs.

Affix

suffixaffixessuffixes
Other languages, such as Latin, are synthetic, which means they tend to express functional meaning with affixes, not with auxiliary verbs.
(The niʔ here is an auxiliary, which can be ignored for explanatory purposes.)

Analytic language

analyticanalyticalanalyticity
These verb catenae are periphrastic forms of English, English being a relatively analytic language.
Auxiliary verb

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedauxiliaries
In English grammar, certain verb forms are classified as auxiliary verbs. Exact definitions of this term vary; an auxiliary verb is generally conceived as one with little semantic meaning of its own, which modifies the meaning of another verb with which it co-occurs.

Negative verb

negative auxiliary verbnegative auxiliary
A negative verb or negation verb is a type of auxiliary that is used to form the negative of a main verb.