Ayman al-Zawahiri

Ayman al ZawahiriAyman al-ZawahriAyman Zawahirial-ZawahiriAbu MuhammadAyman al ZawahriAyman al-ZawahariAyman az-ZawahiriKnights Under the Prophet's BannerSheikh Zawahiri
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري; born June 19, 1951) is an Egyptian terrorist known for being the leader of terrorist group al-Qaeda since June 2011, succeeding Osama bin Laden following his death, and is a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and also some in North America and Europe.wikipedia
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September 11 attacks

9/11September 11, 2001 attacksSeptember 11, 2001
Since the September 11 attacks, the U.S. State Department has offered a US$25 million reward for information or intelligence leading to al-Zawahiri's capture. Many years later, when the United States attacked Afghanistan following the September 11 attacks in October 2001, Azza apparently had no idea that al-Zawahiri had supposedly been a jihadi emir (commander) for the last decade. Ayman al-Zawahiri's first wife Azza and two of their six children, Mohammad and Aisha, were killed in an air strike on Afghanistan by US forces in late December 2001, following the September 11 attacks on the U.S. After an American aerial bombardment of a Taliban-controlled building at Gardez, Azza was pinned under debris of a guesthouse roof.
Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical.

Muhammad al-Zawahiri

Muhammed
Ayman has a younger brother, Muhammad al-Zawahiri, and a twin sister, Heba Mohamed al-Zawahiri.
He is the younger brother of Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.

Islamism

IslamistIslamistspolitical Islam
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري; born June 19, 1951) is an Egyptian terrorist known for being the leader of terrorist group al-Qaeda since June 2011, succeeding Osama bin Laden following his death, and is a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and also some in North America and Europe.
Although Qutb was executed before the completion of his ideology, his idea was disseminated and continuously expanded by the later generations, among them Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and Ayman Al-Zawahiri, who was a student of Qutb's brother Muhammad Qutb and later became a mentor of Osama bin Laden.

Abu Turab al-Urduni

In February 2004, Abu Zubaydah was waterboarded and subsequently stated that Abu Turab Al-Urduni had married one of al-Zawahiri's daughters.
The son-in-law of Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu Turab al-Urduni (also Abu Turab al-Jordani ) was a Jordanian who has been described by the United States government as one of five individuals who were aware of the operational details of the September 11th attacks, along with Osama bin Laden, Khalid Sheik Mohammed, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, and Mohammed Atef.

International Islamic Relief Organization

International Islamic Relief OrganisationWorld Islamic Relief Organization
Muhammad worked in Bosnia, Croatia, and Albania under the cover of being an International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO) official.
Following the 9/11 terror attacks, it was alleged that one of Osama bin-Laden's brothers-in-law had utilised the IIRO Philippines and Indonesian Branches to work with terrorist organizations worldwide, and that a brother of Al-Qaeda official Ayman al Zawahiri working for the IIRO in Albania had brought a number of members of the terror group Egyptian Islamic Jihad to work for IIRO in that European country.

Montasser el-Zayat

Montasser al-ZayatMontasser al-ZayyatMuntasir al-Zayyat
His lawyer, Montasser el-Zayat, said that Zawahiri was tortured in prison.
Montasser el-Zayat or Muntasir al-Zayyat (born 1956) is an Egyptian lawyer and author whose former clients, according to press reports, included Ayman al-Zawahiri, since 2011 the leader of al-Qaeda, the terrorist organization, and al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya.

Egyptian Islamic Jihad

al-JihadIslamic Jihadjihadis
Security officials said he was the head of the Special Action Committee of Islamic Jihad, which organized terrorist operations. The 1995 attack on the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, was the Egyptian Islamic Jihad's first success under Zawahiri's leadership, but Bin Laden had disapproved of the operation. In 1994, the sons of Ahmad Salama Mabruk and Mohammed Sharaf were executed under al-Zawahiri's leadership for betraying Egyptian Islamic Jihad; the militants were ordered to leave the Sudan. Ayman al-Zawahiri was previously the second and last "emir" of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, having succeeded Abbud al-Zumar in the latter role when Egyptian authorities sentenced al-Zumar to life imprisonment.
A physician by the name of Sayyed Imam Al-Sharif or "Dr. Fadl" was head of EIJ for some time, although eventually, Ayman al-Zawahiri, "whose leadership style was autocratic," would take over.

Osama bin Laden

Bin LadenUsama bin LadenOsama
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري; born June 19, 1951) is an Egyptian terrorist known for being the leader of terrorist group al-Qaeda since June 2011, succeeding Osama bin Laden following his death, and is a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and also some in North America and Europe. In Peshawar, he met up with Osama bin Laden, who was running a base for mujahideen called Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK); founded by the Palestinian Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam.
In February 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, which declared the killing of North Americans and their allies an "individual duty for every Muslim" to "liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip".

Jihad

holy warjihādoffensive jihad
Many years later, when the United States attacked Afghanistan following the September 11 attacks in October 2001, Azza apparently had no idea that al-Zawahiri had supposedly been a jihadi emir (commander) for the last decade.
Many other figures prominent in Global jihad started in the Muslim Brotherhood —Abdullah Azzam, bin-Laden's mentor, started in the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan; Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin-Laden's deputy, joined the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood at the age of 14; and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who planned the 9/11 attack, claims to have joined the Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood at age 16.

Mohammed Atef

Mohammad AtefAbu Hafs al-MasriMuhammad Atif
Mohammed Atef escaped to Kandahar, Zawahiri to Kabul, and Bin Laden also fled to Kabul, later joining Atef when he realised no American reprisal attacks were forthcoming.
Mohammed Atef (born Sobhi Abu Setta, also known as Abu Hafs al-Masri) was the military chief of al-Qaeda, and was considered one of Osama bin Laden's two deputies, the other being Ayman Al Zawahiri, although Atef's role in the organization was not well known by intelligence agencies for years.

Attack on the Egyptian Embassy in Pakistan

bombed the Egyptian Embassyattack on the Egyptian embassy in Islamabadbombing of Egypt's embassy in Pakistan
The 1995 attack on the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, was the Egyptian Islamic Jihad's first success under Zawahiri's leadership, but Bin Laden had disapproved of the operation.
Ayman al-Zawahiri planned the attack in 1994, shortly after aligning himself together with Osama bin Laden, initially hoping to target the Khan el-Khalili marketplace on the same day.

1998 United States embassy bombings

1998 U.S. embassy bombings1998 US embassy bombings1998 embassy bombings
In 1998, Ayman al-Zawahiri was listed as under indictment in the United States for his role in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the major East African cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya.
The attacks, which were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, and their terrorist organization, al-Qaeda, to the attention of the U.S. public for the first time, and resulted in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) placing bin Laden on its ten most-wanted fugitives list.

Ahmed Khadr

Achmed Said Khadrhis father
There he became friends with Ahmed Khadr, and the two shared a number of conversations about the need for Islamic government and the needs of the Afghan people.
In the autumn, the family returned to Peshawar, where Khadr met Ayman al-Zawahiri, a doctor who had been convicted in Pakistan five years earlier for arms dealing.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
Ayman al-Zawahiri's first wife Azza and two of their six children, Mohammad and Aisha, were killed in an air strike on Afghanistan by US forces in late December 2001, following the September 11 attacks on the U.S. After an American aerial bombardment of a Taliban-controlled building at Gardez, Azza was pinned under debris of a guesthouse roof.
From 1996 to 2001, the al-Qaeda network of Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri was also operating inside Afghanistan.

Ahmad Salama Mabruk

Abu Faraj al-MasriAhmad Salama MabroukAhmad Salamah Mabruk
In 1994, the sons of Ahmad Salama Mabruk and Mohammed Sharaf were executed under al-Zawahiri's leadership for betraying Egyptian Islamic Jihad; the militants were ordered to leave the Sudan.
However, al-Sharif was replaced by Ayman al-Zawahiri as leader of the group in 1991, and the following year Mabruk moved to the Sudan.

Maktab al-Khidamat

Maktab al-KhadamatMakhtab al-KhidamatMaktab al-Khidmat
In Peshawar, he met up with Osama bin Laden, who was running a base for mujahideen called Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK); founded by the Palestinian Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam.
The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Wa'el Hamza Julaidan, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan.

Al-Qaeda

Al Qaedaal-QaidaAl Qaida
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري; born June 19, 1951) is an Egyptian terrorist known for being the leader of terrorist group al-Qaeda since June 2011, succeeding Osama bin Laden following his death, and is a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and also some in North America and Europe.
Following the death of bin Laden in 2011, the group has been led by Egyptian Ayman al-Zawahiri.

Islamic terrorism

Islamic terroristIslamic terroristsIslamist terrorism
The Pakistan Army troops and Special Service Group taking control of the Lal Masjid ("Red Mosque") in Islamabad found letters from al-Zawahiri directing Islamic militants Abdul Rashid Ghazi and Abdul Aziz Ghazi, who ran the mosque and adjacent madrasah.
Timothy Winter wrote that the proclamations of bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri "ignore 14 centuries of Muslim scholarship", and that if they "followed the norms of their religion, they would have had to acknowledge that no school of mainstream Islam allows the targeting of civilians."

Returnees from Albania

For their leading role in anti-Egyptian Government attacks in the 1990s, al-Zawahiri and his brother Muhammad al-Zawahiri were sentenced to death in the 1999 Egyptian case of the Returnees from Albania.

FBI Most Wanted Terrorists

Most Wanted TerroristsFBI Most Wanted domestic terroristsFBI's Most Wanted Terrorists
On October 10, 2001, al-Zawahiri appeared on the initial list of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's top 22 Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by U.S. President George W. Bush.

Death of Osama bin Laden

Operation Neptune Spearkilling of Osama bin Ladenkilled
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري; born June 19, 1951) is an Egyptian terrorist known for being the leader of terrorist group al-Qaeda since June 2011, succeeding Osama bin Laden following his death, and is a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and also some in North America and Europe.
The material also described Osama bin Laden's relation with Ayman al-Zawahiri and Atiyah Abd al-Rahman.

Aboud El Zomor

Abbud al-ZumarAbboud al-Zomor
Ayman al-Zawahiri was previously the second and last "emir" of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, having succeeded Abbud al-Zumar in the latter role when Egyptian authorities sentenced al-Zumar to life imprisonment.
Born into one of the wealthiest and most prominent families in the Giza Governorate, he was founder and first emir of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, succeeded by Ayman al-Zawahiri (released from prison in 1984), an organization which merged into al-Qaeda in 1998.

Taliban

Afghan Talibanthe TalibanTaleban
In early November 2001, the Taliban government announced they were bestowing official Afghan citizenship on him, as well as Bin Laden, Mohammed Atef, Saif al-Adl, and Shaykh Asim Abdulrahman.
From 1996 to 2001 the Al-Qaeda of Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri became a state within the Taliban state.

Cairo University

University of CairoEgyptian UniversityFuad I University
Mohammed Rabie became a surgeon and a professor of pharmacy at Cairo University.

Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya

al-Gama'a al-IslamiyyaGama'at IslamiyaGama'a Islamiyya
It followed two years of killings by another Islamist group, al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, that had killed over 200 people.
Leading the opposition was EIJ leader Ayman Zawahiri who termed it "surrender" in angry letters to the London newspaper Al-Sharq al-Awsat.