Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
Landscape of Azad Kashmir
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
Paddy field in Leepa valley
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
A 1946 map of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; present-day Azad Kashmir constitutes areas of the three western-most districts
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir
Topographic map of Kashmir
Bagh City
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
Districts of Azad Kashmir
The Indus River system
Kotla, Bagh District
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
Neelum Valley is a tourist destination in Azad Kashmir.
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
Munda Gali, Leepa Valley
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Mirpur University of Science and Technology
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entity and constituting the western portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947.

- Azad Kashmir

Today, the term encompasses a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

- Kashmir
Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

Topographic map of Jammu and Kashmir, with visible altitude for the Kashmir valley and Jammu region.
A high-altitude alpine lake in the Himalayan range in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir union territory (J and K) is bordered in carmine colour. Ladakh union territory (L) is bordered in blue colour.
Srinagar railway station
NH1 near Sonamarg
University of Kashmir during autumn
The Jammu and Kashmir High Court on postal stamps of India
Apples of Kashmir are famous for their taste
Boteh from an Antique Kashmiri Dochalla Shawl
Inauguration of the first Khelo India Winter Games
Vaishno Devi Temple in winter
Shalimar Gardens
Dal Lake
Amarnath Cave

Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a union territory and consisting of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.

The Line of Control separates Jammu and Kashmir from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north.

Pakistan

Country in South Asia.

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.

Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes.

The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions, which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas).

Jhelum River

River in the northern Indian subcontinent.

River in the northern Indian subcontinent.

Verinag Spring is a major source of Jhelum River
A passenger traversing the river precariously seated in a small suspended cradle Circa 1900
Jhelum river, Baramullah, Kashmir, 1880s
Jhelum River c. 1900; photo taken by Eugene Whitehead Esq.
Jhelum River at Uri in Kashmir, 1903
Rope Bridge at Karli, 1908
Bridge over the river, Srinagar, 1969
Jhelum river near Muzaffarabad (2014)
File:River Jehlum, Muzaffarabad
Near Muzaffarabad, 2014
The Jhelum at Verinag, 2014
Jhelum River at Jhelum City, 2005

It originates at Verinag and flows through the Indian administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir, to the Pakistani-administered territory of Azad Kashmir, and then into the Pakistani province of Punjab.

Hindu goddess Parvati was requested by the sage Kasyapa to come to Kashmir for purification of the land from evil practices and impurities of Pisachas living there.

Muzaffarabad

Muzaffarabad District, highlighted red, shown within Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Muzaffarabad is the capital and largest city of Azad Kashmir, and the 60th largest in Pakistan.

Muzaffarabad was founded in 1646 by Sultan Muzaffar Khan, chief of the Bomba tribe who ruled Kashmir.

Gilgit-Baltistan

Photograph of Kargah Buddha in Gilgit; "The ancient Stupa – rock carvings of Buddha, everywhere in the region, point to the firm hold of Buddhism for such a long time."
Map of Tibetan Empire citing the areas of Gilgit-Baltistan as part of its kingdom in 780–790 CE
The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, (National Geographic, 1946). Shown are the Gilgit Agency, consisting of subsidiary states of Jammu and Kashmir, and the Gilgit wazarat, including the Gilgit Leased Area (shown in white). Baltistan was part of the large area of the Ladakh-Baltistan wazarat in the east.
The last Maqpon Raja Ahmed Shah (died in prison in Lhasa c. 1845)
Flag of the Gilgit-Baltistan region
Gilgit Baltisan assembly located in Jutial Gilgit
Gilgit-Baltistan is administered as three divisions
Fourteen districts in 2019
Mountains covered in snow, as seen from the Raja Bazar Road Gilgit
Montage of Gilgit-Baltistan
View of Laila Peak, which is located near Hushe Valley (a town in Khaplu)
The Trango Towers offer some of the largest cliffs and most challenging rock climbing in the world, and every year a number of expeditions from all corners of the globe visit Karakoram to climb the challenging granite.
Cold Desert, Skardu is the world's highest desert
Rush Lake, Nagar, Pakistan
Sheosar Lake is in the western part of Deosai National Park
The Karakoram Highway
National Highway N-15 has abrupt direction changes which is a challenge for drivers who use this route to reach Gilgit
ATR 42–500 on Gilgit Airport. Picture taken on 10 July 2016
A pie chart showing the Sectarian divide of Gilgit-Baltistan
Dance of Swati Guests with traditional music at Baltit Fort in 2014
Wakhi musicians in Gulmit.
One of the poplular dish of this region is Chapchor. It is widely made in Nagar Valley and Hunza Valley
Polo in progress with the shandur lake in background, Shandur, Gupis-Yasin District.
Satpara Lake, Skardu, in 2002
Upper Kachura Lake
Shangrila Lake, Skardu
Manthokha Waterfall

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan as an autonomous territory, and constituting the northern portion of the larger Kashmir region which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China from somewhat later.The application of the term "administered" to the various regions of Kashmir and a mention of the Kashmir dispute is supported by the tertiary sources (a) through (d), reflecting due weight in the coverage.

It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the southeast.

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)

Partition of India

The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)
British Indian Empire in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (seated in the carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Congress in which Azad was elected president for the second time
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan centre
The Partition of India: green regions were all part of Pakistan by 1948, and orange ones part of India. The darker-shaded regions represent the Punjab and Bengal provinces partitioned by the Radcliffe Line. The grey areas represent some of the key princely states that were eventually integrated into India or Pakistan.
Mountbatten with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947.
A refugee special train at Ambala Station during the partition of India
A crowd of Muslims at the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi, which had been converted into a vast camp for Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains.

In 1933, Choudhry Rahmat Ali had produced a pamphlet, entitled Now or never, in which the term Pakistan, 'land of the pure,' comprising the Punjab, North West Frontier Province (Afghania), Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan, was coined for the first time.

During these same wars, 23,300 Hindu families also migrated to Jammu Division from Azad Kashmir and West Punjab.

Kashmiri language

Kashmiri or Koshur (, कॉशुर,, /kəːʃur/) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subgroup, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris of the Kashmir region, primarily in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Kashmiri is also spoken in Pakistan, primarily in the territory of Azad Kashmir, where the speakers are mostly concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys as these areas border the Kashmir Valley.

Map depicting regional tectonic plates

2005 Kashmir earthquake

Map depicting regional tectonic plates
USGS Shakemap for the event
Pakistani soldiers carry tents away from a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter

The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at 08:50:39 Pakistan Standard Time on 8 October in Pakistani-administered Azad Kashmir.

Most of the devastation hit north Pakistan and Pakistan administered Kashmir.

Jammu division

Revenue and administrative division within Jammu and Kashmir, a union territory of India.

Revenue and administrative division within Jammu and Kashmir, a union territory of India.

Lama dance at Jummoo,
Maharaja Gulab Singh, the founder of princely state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir region divided across Pakistan, India and China (map by CIA)
Tawi River
The Vaishno Devi shrine attracts millions of Hindu devotees every year
Bahu Fort
Raghunath Temple
The Shivkhori cave
Machail Mata
Lohri bonfire

However, major portions of the western districts of Muzaffarabad, Poonch, and Mirpur remained under the control of Pakistan.

In the west, the Line of Control separates Jammu from Pakistani-administered Kashmir (known as Azad Kashmir in Pakistan).