Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)
Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
British Indian Empire in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (seated in the carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
Landscape of Azad Kashmir
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Congress in which Azad was elected president for the second time
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
Paddy field in Leepa valley
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan centre
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
A 1946 map of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; present-day Azad Kashmir constitutes areas of the three western-most districts
The Partition of India: green regions were all part of Pakistan by 1948, and orange ones part of India. The darker-shaded regions represent the Punjab and Bengal provinces partitioned by the Radcliffe Line. The grey areas represent some of the key princely states that were eventually integrated into India or Pakistan.
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Topographic map of Kashmir
Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir
Mountbatten with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
Bagh City
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Indus River system
Districts of Azad Kashmir
A refugee special train at Ambala Station during the partition of India
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
Kotla, Bagh District
A crowd of Muslims at the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi, which had been converted into a vast camp for Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
Neelum Valley is a tourist destination in Azad Kashmir.
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Munda Gali, Leepa Valley
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
Parliament House
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes
Mirpur University of Science and Technology
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
Prime Minister's Office
1909 Percentage of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains.
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entity and constituting the western portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947.

- Azad Kashmir

The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India, and the Dominion of Pakistan is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

- Partition of India

Today, the term encompasses a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

- Kashmir

The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage ) of the British Crown, lasted until the Partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.

- Kashmir

Spurred by the Pakistan Movement, which sought a homeland for the Muslims of British India, and election victories in 1946 by the All-India Muslim League, Pakistan gained independence in 1947 after the Partition of the British Indian Empire, which awarded separate statehood to its Muslim-majority regions and was accompanied by an unparalleled mass migration and loss of life.

- Pakistan

At the time of the Partition of India in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states, which were left with the options of joining India or Pakistan or remaining independent.

- Azad Kashmir

In 1933, Choudhry Rahmat Ali had produced a pamphlet, entitled Now or Never, in which the term Pakistan, 'land of the pure,' comprising the Punjab, North West Frontier Province (Afghania), Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan, was coined for the first time.

- Partition of India

Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes.

- Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions, which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas).

- Pakistan

During these same wars, 23,300 Hindu families also migrated to Jammu Division from Azad Kashmir and West Punjab.

- Partition of India
Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)

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