Petroglyphs in Gobustan National Park dating back to the 10th millennium BC indicating a thriving culture.
Territories of the khanates (and sultanates) in the 18th–19th century
The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813
Map presented by the delegation of Azerbaijan in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference
Soviet Army paratroopers during the Black January tragedy in 1990
Military situation in the Nagorno-Karabakh region prior to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Azerbaijan.
Caucasus Mountains in northern Azerbaijan
Mount Bazarduzu, the highest peak of Azerbaijan, as seen from Mount Shahdagh
The landscape of Khinalug valley
Murovdag is the highest mountain range in the Lesser Caucasus.
The Karabakh horse is the national animal of Azerbaijan.
Government building in Baku
The son of former President Heydar Aliyev, Ilham Aliyev, succeeded his father and has remained in power since 2003.
President İlham Aliyev with President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 31 October 2017
Ilham Aliyev with Russian president Vladimir Putin at the Caspian Sea Summit in Aktau, Kazakhstan, August 2018
Azerbaijani Navy fleet during the 2011 military parade in Baku
Contingent from the Azerbaijani military during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
Azerbaijan is divided into 14 economic regions.
Change in per capita GDP of Azerbaijan since 1973. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Azerbaijan exports, 2019
A pumping unit for the mechanical extraction of oil on the outskirts of Baku
The South Caucasus Pipeline is bringing natural gas through Turkey to Europe
Shahdag Mountain Resort is the country's largest winter resort.
Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory
Population pyramid
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku. The mosque is built over the tomb of a descendant of Muhammad.
Classroom in Dunya School
Uzeyir Hajibeyov merged traditional Azerbaijani music with Western styles in the early 20th century.
Alim Qasimov performs mugham at Eurovision Song Contest 2012. The Azerbaijani Mugham was inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Painting of Khurshidbanu Natavan, one of the most distinguished Azerbaijani poets. She was also the daughter of the last ruler of the Karabakh Khanate.
Traditional Azerbaijani clothing and musical instruments
Handwork coppery in Lahij
Dolma, a traditional Azerbaijani meal
Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhchivan built in the 12th century
A miniature painting of a battle scene on the walls of the Palace of Shaki Khans, 18th century, city of Shaki
Scene from the Azerbaijani film In the Kingdom of Oil and Millions, 1916
Rashadat Akhundov, the co-founder of Nida Civic Movement, was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment on 6 May 2014.
Baku National Stadium was used for the first European Games in June 2015.
Usta Gambar Karabakhi – Tree of Life
Mirza Gadim Iravani – Portrait of sitting woman
Bahruz Kangarli – Landscape with mountains
Azim Azimzade – Ruins of Reichstag

Transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

- Azerbaijan

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Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic

A 1918 map of the Caucasus by the British Army. The highlighted sections show the successor states of the TDFR, which claimed roughly the same territory.
Nikolay Chkheidze, who served as the Chairman of the Seim.
Akaki Chkhenkeli served both as prime minister and foreign affairs minister for the republic
Irakli Tsereteli gave the final speech of the Seim, calling for the dissolution of the TDFR and the independence of Georgia.

The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; 22 April – 28 May 1918) was a short-lived state in the Caucasus that included most of the territory of the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, as well as parts of Russia and Turkey.

Republic of Artsakh

The lands of Syunik (left) and Artsakh (right) until the early ninth century
An 1856 German-language map labelling the region "Artssakh"
Map of Artsakh and surrounding territories. The area surrounded by red borders corresponds to territory de facto controlled by the Republic of Artsakh from 1994 until 2020. Yellow regions correspond to the Soviet-era Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO), with yellow striped regions controlled by Azerbaijan but claimed by the Republic of Artsakh. Green striped regions correspond to territories outside the former NKAO held by Artsakh until the end of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war.
The National Assembly of Artsakh in Stepanakert
The Presidential Palace
The government building
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Artsakh in Stepanakert
The graves of Armenian soldiers in Stepanakert.
General view of the capital Stepanakert
The town of Chartar
Wall with images of fallen Armenian soldiers during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
Artsakh Street in Watertown, Massachusetts
Topographic map of Artsakh in the borders 1994−2000.
Martuni town
Mountain view in Martakert region
Regions of Artsakh:
1: Martakert; 2: Askeran; 3: Stepanakert (city); 4: Martuni; 5: Shushi
Claimed regions:
6: Hadrut; 7: Shahumyan
(Areas shaded white indicate territory outside of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and Shahumyan Region. Horizontal dashed lines indicate territory under the control of Azerbaijan.)
Children at Tumo Center Artsakh branch
The Freedom Fighters' Boulevard in Stepanakert
Main cities and towns in Artsakh (territorial control shown is prior to the 2020 war)
Gandzasar Cathedral
Church of St. Grigoris of the Amaras Monastery
Dadivank Monastery
Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
A hotel in downtown Stepanakert
Karmir Shuka.
Section of Janapar trail.
Exhibition of artworks at Artsakh Wine Fest
Stepanakert Airport
Artsakh State University
"We are our mountains" monument depicting a man and a woman
Artsakh State Museum
Stepanakert Republican Stadium in Stepanakert

Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (Արցախի Հանրապետություն), formerly the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Нагорно-Карабахская Республика, НКР, Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետություն, ԼՂՀ), is a breakaway state in the South Caucasus, whose territory is internationally recognised as part of Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

One of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.

Location of Azerbaijan (red) within the Soviet Union
Baku in the early 1950s
Location of Azerbaijan (red) within the Soviet Union
Flag of Azerbaijan in 1991 before the collapse of the Soviet Union
A parade on Lenin Square in Baku in honor of the 50th anniversary of the founding of Soviet Azerbaijan, October 1970

On 5 February 1991, Azerbaijan SSR was renamed the Republic of Azerbaijan according to the Decision No.16-XII of Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan approving the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan SSR dated 29 November 1990, remained in the USSR for the period before the declaration of independence in August 1991.

Armenian-occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh

Depicted in pink and pre-2020 Azerbaijani-held territory in yellow.

Russian peacekeepers and Azerbaijani military personnel in Kalbajar.

The Armenian-occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh were areas of Azerbaijan, situated outside the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO), which were occupied by the ethnic Armenian military forces of the breakaway Republic of Artsakh (back then the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) with the military support from Armenia, from the end of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994) to 2020, when the territories were returned to Azerbaijani control by military force or handed over in accordance to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement (with the exception of the Lachin corridor).


Landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Syunik, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.

June 2001 NASA photograph of the snow-covered Lesser Caucasus in the south of the Greater Caucasus. Around the year 1800, the Karabakh Khanate was based in the southeast corner of the Lesser Caucasus. It extended east into the lowlands, hence the name Nagorno- or "Highland-" Karabagh for the western part.
The Amaras Monastery, founded in the 4th century by St Gregory the Illuminator. In the 5th century, Mesrop Mashtots, inventor of the Armenian alphabet, established at Amaras the first school to use his script.
The monastery at Gandzasar was commissioned by the House of Khachen and completed in 1238
The Askeran Fortress, built by the Karabakh Khanate ruler Panah Ali Khan in the 18th century
The semi-independent Five Principalities (Armenian: Խամսայի Մելիքություններ) of Karabakh (Gyulistan, Jraberd, Khachen, Varanda, and Dizak), widely considered to be the last relic of Armenian statehood (15th–19th century).
Palace of the former ruler (khan) of Shusha. Taken from a postcard from the late 19th–early 20th century.
Aftermath of the Shusha massacre: Armenian half of Shusha destroyed by Azerbaijani armed forces in 1920, with the defiled Armenian Cathedral of the Holy Savior in the background.
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast in the Soviet era.
Ethnic make-up of Nagorno-Karabakh in the late Soviet era.
A restored Armenian T-72, knocked out of commission while attacking Azeri positions in Askeran District, serves as a war memorial on the outskirts of Stepanakert.
The final borders of the conflict after the Bishkek Protocol. Armenian forces of Nagorno-Karabakh controlled almost 9% of Azerbaijan's territory outside the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, while Azerbaijani forces control Shahumian and the eastern parts of Martakert and Martuni.
Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sargsyan in Moscow on 2 November 2008
The Sarsang Reservoir
A view of the forested mountains of Nagorno-Karabakh
Ethnic groups of the region in 1995, after the deportations of Armenians and Azerbaijanis. (See entire map)

Nagorno-Karabakh is a disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but most of it is governed by the unrecognised Republic of Artsakh (also known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)) since the first Nagorno-Karabakh War.

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war

Armed conflict in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding territories.

For a more detailed map, see the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict detailed map
Ethnic groups of the region in 1995, following the end of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War and the displacement of the region's Azerbaijani and ethnic Armenian population. (See entire map)
Approximate frontlines at the time of the ceasefire, with Azerbaijan's territorial gains during the war in red, the Lachin corridor under Russian peacekeepers in blue, and areas ceded by Armenia to Azerbaijan hashed.
Map of the war showing Azerbaijan's day-to-day advances
A pro-military billboard in Republic Square, Yerevan, on 7 October 2020.
Azerbaijani flag in Jafar Jabbarly Square near the 28 May station in Baku on 10 October 2020.
Protests in Yerevan against the terms of a cease-fire agreement on 18 November 2020.
Celebrations in Baku, Azerbaijan after the peace treaty.
President Ilham Aliyev visiting Fuzuli on 16 November.
Azerbaijani Sukhoi Su-25 fighter jets during the victory parade in Baku on 10 December.
Russian peacekeepers and Azerbaijani military personnel near Dadivank of Kalbajar District.
The wall with images of fallen Armenian soldiers. According to Artsakhian President, mainly 18–20 year old soldiers fought in hostilities.
The Armenian Apostolic Ghazanchetsots Cathedral in Shusha was shelled twice during the conflict.
Azerbaijani authorities had stated that about four thousand civilian objects were damaged in the territory of the Tartar District as a result of the bombardment of the district.
Most of Azerbaijan's initial successful advances were concentrated in the areas located along the Aras River, which has less mountainous terrain compared to the region's northern and central territories.
Bayraktar TB2 at 2020 Baku Victory Parade. Bayraktar TB2 drones were used extensively by Azerbaijani forces during the war.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline (green) is one of several pipelines running from Baku.
Billboards in Yerevan began displaying footage released by the Armenian Ministry of Defence at the beginning of the conflict.
The Armenian forces had shelled the town of Shikharkh, damaging apartments and schools. The town was built for the Azerbaijani refugees of the First Nagorno-Karabakh war.
Destruction in Ganja after the Armenian missile attacks on the city.
Destroyed housing compex after the Azerbaijani bombardment of Stepanakert
Protesters in Geneva demand the release of Armenian POWs, 15 April 2021
Artsakhi residents try to remove car tires from a burning car shop after shelling by Azerbaijan's artillery
Meeting of the Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev with the country's Security Council on 27 September 2020
Artsakh's president Arayik Harutyunyan awarding an Armenian volunteer for capturing a Syrian mercenary on 2 November 2020.
Recep Tayyip Erdogan with Ilham Aliyev on a 2020 visit to Baku.
Azerbaijani, Turkish and Israeli flags in Baku in October 2020

The main combatants were Azerbaijan, with support from Turkey and foreign mercenary groups, on one side, and the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh and Armenia on the other.

First Nagorno-Karabakh War

Clockwise from top: Remnants of Azerbaijani APCs; internally displaced Azerbaijanis from the Armenian-occupied territories; Armenian T-72 tank memorial at the outskirts of Stepanakert; Armenian soldiers
Administrative map of the Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991
Television images showing burnt automobiles and marauding rioters on the streets of the industrial city of Sumgait during the pogrom there in February 1988.
Internally displaced Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Karabakh, 1993.
Situation in Qazakh following the war
Armenian soldiers in Karabakh, 1994, wearing Soviet Army combat helmets and wielding AK-74 assault rifles
Azerbaijani soldiers during the war, 1992
The road leading up to Shusha was the scene of a battle between Armenian and Azerbaijani armored vehicles.
A derelict BRDM-2 in Dashalty
Heydar Aliyev with Azerbaijani soldiers in a trench
An Armenian engineer repairing a captured Azerbaijani tank. Note the crescent emblem on the turret of the tank.
Ruins of Aghdam in 2009.
The final borders of the conflict after the 1994 ceasefire was signed. Armenian forces of Nagorno-Karabakh occupied 16% of Azerbaijan's territory, while Azerbaijani forces control Shahumian and the eastern parts of Martakert and Martuni.
The graves of Armenian soldiers in Stepanakert
The graves of Azerbaijani soldiers in Baku
Ilham Aliyev, Serzh Sargsyan and Vladimir Putin, 10 August 2014
Ethnic groups of the region in 1995. (See entire map)
Situation after the 2020 Nagorno Karabakh War

The First Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place from February 1988 to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

List of transcontinental countries

[[File:transcontinental nations.svg|thumb|upright=1.8|A map of transcontinental countries, and countries that control territory in more than one continent.

Map of the Darién Gap at the border between Colombia and Panama

This convention results in several countries such as in the case of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkey finding themselves almost entirely in 'Asia', with a few small enclaves or districts technically in 'Europe'.

Unitary state

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

The pathway of regional integration or separation

🇦🇿 azerbaijan

South Caucasus

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States.