Azygos vein

azygosazygous veinazygos veinsvena azygos
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava.wikipedia
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Superior vena cava

superioranterior vena cavaSVC
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava. The azygos vein transports deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein.
It passes vertically downwards behind first intercostal space and receives azygos vein just before it pierces the fibrous pericardium opposite right second costal cartilage and its lower part is intrapericardial.

Bronchus

bronchibronchialbronchial tubes
It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.
The azygos vein arches over it from behind; and the right pulmonary artery lies at first below and then in front of it.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.
Above the hilum of the lung is an arched groove for the azygos vein, and above this is a wide groove for the superior vena cava and right brachiocephalic vein; behind this, and close to the top of the lung is a groove for the brachiocephalic artery.

Hemiazygos vein

hemiazygos
A major tributary is the hemiazygos vein, a similar structure on the opposite side of the vertebral column. The azygos system of veins is considered to be the azygos vein, along with its left-sided counterparts, the hemiazygos vein and the accessory hemiazygos vein.
The hemiazygos vein and the accessory hemiazygos vein, when taken together, essentially serve as the left-sided equivalent of the azygos vein.

Mediastinum

mediastinalposterior mediastinumanterior mediastinum
It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.

Bronchial veins

bronchial vein
Other tributaries include the bronchial veins, pericardial veins, and posterior right intercostal veins.
The right side drains into the azygos vein, while the left side drains into the left superior intercostal vein or the accessory hemiazygos vein.

Ascending lumbar vein

It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.

Azygos lobe

Azygos lobe of the lung
As an anatomical variation in 1-2% of the population, the arch can be displaced laterally, thereby creating a pleural septum separating an azygos lobe from the upper lobe of the right lung.
Embryologically, it arises from an anomalous lateral course of the azygos vein in a pleural septum within the apical segment of the right upper lobe or in other words an azygos lobe is formed when the right posterior cardinal vein, one of the precursors of the azygos vein, fails to migrate over the apex of the lung and penetrates it instead, carrying along two pleural layers that invaginates into the upper portion of the right upper lobe.

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

CCSVICCVIchronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency
Zamboni and colleagues claimed that in MS patients diagnosed with CCSVI, the azygos and IJV veins are stenotic (abnormally narrowed) in around 90% of cases.

Intercostal veins

intercostal veinveins
Other tributaries include the bronchial veins, pericardial veins, and posterior right intercostal veins.

Inferior vena cava

inferiorIVCposterior vena cava
It also joins with the azygos vein (which runs on the right side of the vertebral column) and venous plexuses next to the spinal cord.

Accessory hemiazygos vein

The azygos system of veins is considered to be the azygos vein, along with its left-sided counterparts, the hemiazygos vein and the accessory hemiazygos vein.
It either crosses the body of the eighth thoracic vertebra to join the azygos vein or ends in the hemiazygos.

Vertebral column

spinespinal columnspinal
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava.

Venae cavae

vena cavavena cavaevenæ cavæ
It connects the systems of superior vena cava and inferior vena cava and can provide an alternative path for blood to the right atrium when either of the venae cavae is blocked.

Atrium (heart)

right atriumatrialeft atrium
It connects the systems of superior vena cava and inferior vena cava and can provide an alternative path for blood to the right atrium when either of the venae cavae is blocked.

Thorax

chestthoracicthoraces
The azygos vein transports deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
The azygos vein transports deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
The anatomy of this blood vessel can be quite variable.

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
The vein is so named because it has no symmetrically equivalent vein on the left side of the body.

Subcostal vein

vein
It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.

Pulmonary pleurae

pleuraparietal pleuravisceral pleura
As an anatomical variation in 1-2% of the population, the arch can be displaced laterally, thereby creating a pleural septum separating an azygos lobe from the upper lobe of the right lung.

Internal vertebral venous plexuses

vertebral venous plexusesanterior internal vertebral plexusesanterior vertebral venous plexus
It communicates with the vertebral venous plexuses.

Crus of diaphragm

cruracrura of the diaphragmcrus of the diaphragm
The lumbar aspect of the azygos vein can ascend anteriorly to the lumbar vertebrae and pass behind the right crus of the diaphragm or cross the aortic hiatus (where the aorta pierces the diaphragm) to the right of the cisterna chyli, a dilated lymph sac.