A pair of AMD BIOS chips for a Dell 310 computer from the 1980s
One 8-bit and five 16-bit ISA slots on a motherboard
Boot process
8-bit XT, 16-bit ISA, EISA (top to bottom)
BIOS chips in a Dell 310 that were updated by replacing the chips
8-bit XT: Adlib FM Sound card
Award BIOS setup utility on a standard PC
16-bit ISA: Madge 4/16 Mbps Token Ring NIC
BIOS replacement kit for a Dell 310 from the late 1980s. Included are two chips, a plastic holder for the chips, and a chip puller.
16-bit ISA: Ethernet 10Base-5/2 NIC
American Megatrends BIOS 686. This BIOS chip is housed in a PLCC package in a socket.
8-bit XT: US Robotics 56k Modem
Compaq Portable 386 BIOS
An American Megatrends BIOS showing an "Intel CPU uCode Loading Error" after a failed attempt to upload microcode patches into the CPU
A detached BIOS chip

This trouble with configuration eventually led to the creation of ISA PnP, a plug-n-play system that used a combination of modifications to hardware, the system BIOS, and operating system software to automatically manage resource allocations.

- Industry Standard Architecture

Once the system is booted, hardware monitoring and computer fan control is normally done directly by the Hardware Monitor chip itself, which can be a separate chip, interfaced through I2C or SMBus, or come as a part of a Super I/O solution, interfaced through Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) or Low Pin Count (LPC).

- BIOS
A pair of AMD BIOS chips for a Dell 310 computer from the 1980s

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Compaq Portable was one of the first nearly 100% IBM-compatible PCs.

IBM PC compatible

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IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT that are able to use the same software and expansion cards.

IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT that are able to use the same software and expansion cards.

The Compaq Portable was one of the first nearly 100% IBM-compatible PCs.
The original IBM PC (Model 5150) motivated the production of clones during the early 1980s.
The DEC Rainbow 100 runs MS-DOS but is not compatible with the IBM PC.
MS-DOS version 1.12 for Compaq Personal Computers
The PowerPak 286, an IBM PC compatible computer running AutoCAD under MS-DOS.

This was facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components, which were cheap, and by various manufacturers' ability to reverse-engineer the BIOS firmware using a "clean room design" technique.

It was later re-named the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus, after the Extended Industry Standard Architecture bus open standard for IBM PC compatibles was announced in September 1988 by a consortium of PC clone vendors, led by Compaq and called the Gang of Nine, as an alternative to IBM's proprietary Micro Channel architecture (MCA) introduced in its PS/2 series.

IBM Personal Computer/AT

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Released in 1984 as the fourth model in the IBM Personal Computer line, following the IBM PC/XT and its IBM Portable PC variant.

Released in 1984 as the fourth model in the IBM Personal Computer line, following the IBM PC/XT and its IBM Portable PC variant.

In addition to keeping the time, the RTC includes 50 bytes of CMOS memory which is used to store software-adjustable BIOS parameters.

The AT bus became the de facto "ISA" (Industry Standard Architecture), while PC XT slots were retroactively named "8-bit ISA".

Low Pin Count interface Winbond chip

Low Pin Count

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Low Pin Count interface Winbond chip
Trusted Platform Module installed on a motherboard, and using the LPC bus
A diagram showing the LPC bus connecting the southbridge, the flash ROM, and the Super I/O chip

The Low Pin Count (LPC) bus is a computer bus used on IBM-compatible personal computers to connect low-bandwidth devices to the CPU, such as the BIOS ROM (BIOS ROM was moved to the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus in 2006 ), "legacy" I/O devices (integrated into Super I/O, Embedded Controller or IPMI chip), and Trusted Platform Module (TPM).

The LPC bus was introduced by Intel in 1998 as a software-compatible substitute for the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus.

Diagram of a motherboard, which supports many on-board peripheral functions as well as several expansion slots.

Super I/O

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Class of I/O controller integrated circuits that began to be used on personal computer motherboards in the late 1980s, originally as add-in cards, later embedded on the motherboards.

Class of I/O controller integrated circuits that began to be used on personal computer motherboards in the late 1980s, originally as add-in cards, later embedded on the motherboards.

Diagram of a motherboard, which supports many on-board peripheral functions as well as several expansion slots.
ITE Super I/O chip (IT8712F)
SMSC (now Microchip) Super I/O chip (FDC37M813) on IBM motherboard

The original super I/O chips communicated with the central processing unit via the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus.

A serial BIOS ROM interface (if the ROM is not directly on the LPC bus itself)