BRCA2

FANCD1breast cancer 2BRCA 2BRCA IIBRCA-2Breast cancer type 2 susceptibility proteingenes, brca2
BRCA2 and BRCA2 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.wikipedia
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BRCA1

BRCA geneFANCSBABAM1
BRCA2 and BRCA1 are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired.
BRCA1 and BRCA2 are unrelated proteins, but both are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired.

BRCA mutation

BRCABRCA'' mutationBRCA1/2
If BRCA1 or BRCA2 itself is damaged by a BRCA mutation, damaged DNA is not repaired properly, and this increases the risk for breast cancer.
A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
If BRCA1 or BRCA2 itself is damaged by a BRCA mutation, damaged DNA is not repaired properly, and this increases the risk for breast cancer. Certain variations of the BRCA2 gene increase risks for breast cancer as part of a hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome.
About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person's parents, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others.

Ovarian cancer

ovarianovarian carcinomaovary
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate and pancreatic cancer.
About 10% of cases are related to inherited genetic risk; women with mutations in the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 have about a 50% chance of developing the disease.

Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndrome

hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndromeHereditary Breast and Ovarian CancerHereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome
Certain variations of the BRCA2 gene increase risks for breast cancer as part of a hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome.
* BRCA mutations: Harmful mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can produce very high rates of breast and ovarian cancer, as well as increased rates of other cancers.

RAD51

RAD51 nucleoprotein filament
BRCA2 binds the single strand DNA and directly interacts with the recombinase RAD51 to stimulate and maintain strand invasion, a vital step of homologous recombination.
This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2 and RAD52.

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anaemiaFanconi's anaemiaFanconi anemia C
People who have two mutated copies of the BRCA2 gene have one type of Fanconi anemia.
Scientists have identified 22 FA or FA-like genes: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM, FANCN (PALB2), FANCO (RAD51C), FANCP (SLX4), FANCQ (XPF), FANCS (BRCA1), FANCT (UBE2T), FANCU (XRCC2), FANCV (REV7), and FANCW (RFWD3).

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate and pancreatic cancer.
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, important risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have also been implicated in prostate cancer.

Tumor suppressor

tumor suppressor genetumor suppressor genestumour suppressor gene
BRCA2 is a human tumor suppressor gene (specifically, a caretaker gene), found in all humans; its protein, also called by the synonym breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein, is responsible for repairing DNA.
Other examples of tumour suppressors include pVHL, APC, CD95, ST5, YPEL3, ST7, and ST14, p16, BRCA2, APC.

Pancreatic cancer

pancreaticpancreaspancreatic carcinoma
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate and pancreatic cancer.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
By repairing DNA, these proteins play a role in maintaining the stability of the human genome and prevent dangerous gene rearrangements that can lead to hematologic and other cancers.

Penetrance

incomplete penetrancepenetrantvariable penetrance
The predominant allele has a normal tumor suppressive function whereas high penetrance mutations in these genes cause a loss of tumor suppressive function, which correlates with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc.

Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad GeneticsAMP v. Myriad GeneticsAssociation for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Myriad's business model of exclusively offering the diagnostic test led from Myriad's beginnings as a startup in 1994 to its being a publicly traded company with 1200 employees and about $500M in annual revenue in 2012; it also led to controversy over high test prices and the unavailability of second opinions from other diagnostic labs, which in turn led to the landmark Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics lawsuit.
Over the next year, Myriad, in collaboration with University of Utah, isolated and sequenced the BRCA2 gene, and the first BRCA2 patent was filed in the U.S. by the University of Utah and other institutions in 1995.

DNA repair

DNA damagerepairtranslesion synthesis
They are involved in the repair of chromosomal damage with an important role in the error-free repair of DNA double strand breaks.
BRCA1 and BRCA2, two important genes whose mutations confer a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carriers, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathways, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination.

Homologous recombination

recombinationrecombinational repairhomolog recombination
BRCA2 binds the single strand DNA and directly interacts with the recombinase RAD51 to stimulate and maintain strand invasion, a vital step of homologous recombination.
This is the case with BRCA1 and BRCA2, two similar tumor suppressor genes whose malfunctioning has been linked with considerably increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer.

Myriad Genetics

D'Arcy v Myriad Genetics Inc Myriad Genetics IncMyriad Genetics case
The gene was first cloned by scientists at Myriad Genetics, Endo Recherche, Inc., HSC Research & Development Limited Partnership, and the University of Pennsylvania.
Two of the company's patents on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were ruled invalid on March 29, 2010, by Judge Robert W. Sweet in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York.

FANCD2

The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2 (this gene), FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL.

Corn smut

Ustilago maydishuitlacocheCuitlacoche
Homologs of BRCA2 are also essential for meiosis in the fungus Ustilago maydis, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster.
maydis'' that the function of the breast-cancer gene BRCA2 is now known.

PALB2

FANCNFanconi anemia, complementation group N
This protein binds to and colocalizes with the breast cancer 2 early onset protein (BRCA2) in nuclear foci and likely permits the stable intranuclear localization and accumulation of BRCA2.

Cancer epigenetics

epigeneticepigeneticallyFrequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes
Many cancers have epigenetic deficiencies in various DNA repair genes (see Frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes in cancers).
The two gray-highlighted genes RAD51 and BRCA2, are required for homologous recombinational repair.

BRCC3

CXORF5
BRCC3 has been shown to interact with BRE, BRCA2, RAD51, BRCA1, P53 and BARD1.