IraqBaathist IraqIraqiIraqi RepublicBa'athist regimeBa'athist governmentRepublic of IraqBa'athistIraq under Saddam Husseinregime
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.wikipedia
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Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003.
State of KuwaitKuwaitiKWT
Kuwait, which had deliberately increased oil output following the war, reducing international oil prices, further weakened the Iraqi economy.
In 1990, Kuwait was invaded, and later annexed, by Saddam's Iraq.
invasion of IraqIraq War2003 Iraq War
In 2003, U.S. and coalition forces invaded Iraq, and the Ba'athist Iraqi regime was deposed less than a month later.
The invasion phase began on 19 March 2003 and lasted just over one month, including 21 days of major combat operations, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq.
Iran-Iraq warTanker WarIraq-Iran War
An external problem was the border conflict with Iran, which would contribute to the Iran–Iraq War.
The 1974-75 Shatt al-Arab clashes refer to Iranian-Iraqi standoff in the Persian Gulf region of Shatt al-Arab waterway during the mid-1970s.
National Progressive FrontNational FrontProgressive Kurdish Front
However, as historian Charles Tripp notes in A History of Iraq, the campaign started "a curious game" whereby the government alternately persecuted and courted the party until 1972–1973, when the ICP was offered, and accepted, membership in the National Progressive Front (NPF). The National Progressive Front (NPF) was a popular front led by the Iraqi Ba'ath Party, established on 17 July 1973 (the fifth anniversary of the 17 July Revolution).
The National Progressive Front (الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية, al-Jabha al-Wataniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF, sometimes known as the Progressive Patriotic and National Front) was an Iraqi Popular Front announced on 16 July 1973 and constituted in 1974, ostensibly formed within the framework of a "joint action programme" to establish a coalition between the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, the Iraqi Communist Party, the Kurdistan Revolutionary Party, a pro-government section of the Kurdish Democratic Party, and miscellaneous independents.
de facto relationshipde-factode facto'' segregation
Saddam through his post as de facto chief of the party's intelligence services, became the country's de facto leader by the mid-1970s, and became de jure leader in 1979 when he succeeded al-Bakr in office as President.
Similarly, Saddam Hussein's formal rule of Iraq is often recorded as beginning in 1979, the year he assumed the Presidency of Iraq.
Operation Desert StormPersian Gulf WarOperation Desert Shield
The resulting international response led to the Persian Gulf War, which Iraq lost.
The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes.
Chemical AliAli Hasan al-MajidAli Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti
Saddam appointed his cousin Ali Hasan al-Majid as military chief in Kurdistan.
A first cousin of former Ba'athist Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, he became notorious in the 1980s and 1990s for his role in the Iraqi government's campaigns against internal opposition forces, namely the ethnic Kurdish rebels of the north, and the Shia rebels of the south.
further unrestIraq crisisperiod of unrest
Iraq experienced another period of unrest in early 1999 following the killing of Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr by Iraqi security forces.
The 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq (or Second Sadr Uprising ) refers to a short period of unrest in Iraq in early 1999 following the killing of Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr by the then Ba'athist government of Iraq.
Resolution 1441UN Security Council Resolution 14411441
In 2002 the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1441, which stated that Iraq had failed to fulfill its obligations demanded by the UN.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).
Al-Anfal CampaignAnfal campaignAnfal
al-Majid initiated the al-Anfal campaign; chemical weapons were used against civilians.
Axis of GoodBeyond the Axis of Evilenemies
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks of 2001, the United States initiated a "Global War on Terrorism", and labelled Iraq as a part of an "Axis of Evil".
Of the three nations Bush cited, however, he gave the most criticism to Iraq.
Ba'ath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath PartyIraqi-led Ba'ath Party
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule. Iraq, under the rule of the Iraqi-led Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, was a one-party state.
It was established by Bahrainis who had studied in Ba'athist Iraq during the 1960s and 1970s.
FedayeenSaddam FedayeenAshbal Saddam
The Iraqi opposition manifested itself in three forms: guerilla warfare against the regime; acts of sabotage or terrorism; and desertion from the Iraqi Army or the country's paramilitary forces, such as the Popular Army and Fedayeen Saddam.
Fedayeen Saddam (Arabic: فدائيي صدام) was a paramilitary organization loyal to the Ba'athist Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein.
Ba'ath coupoverthrown17 July
Iraqi President Abdul Rahman Arif, and Iraqi Prime Minister Tahir Yahya, were ousted during the 17 July coup d'état led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party, which had previously held power in 1963 and was led primarily by al-Bakr, its leader, and Saddam Hussein. The National Progressive Front (NPF) was a popular front led by the Iraqi Ba'ath Party, established on 17 July 1973 (the fifth anniversary of the 17 July Revolution).
Bloodshed during the conflict nearly led to a mutiny led by Maher Abd al-Rashid, father-in-law of Saddam's second son.
Iraq, under the rule of the Iraqi-led Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, was a one-party state.
Republican GuardIraqi Republican GuardRepublican Guards
Abdul Rahman Arif, the then-President of Iraq, first knew of the coup when jubilant members of the Republican Guard started shooting into the air in "a premature triumph".
Ahmad Hasan al-BakrAhmed Hasan al-BakrAhmad Hassan al-Bakr
Iraqi President Abdul Rahman Arif, and Iraqi Prime Minister Tahir Yahya, were ousted during the 17 July coup d'état led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party, which had previously held power in 1963 and was led primarily by al-Bakr, its leader, and Saddam Hussein.
Ba'ath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath PartyIraqi Regional Branch
Saddam became the President of Iraq, Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Regional Command of the Ba'ath Party in 1979, during a wave of anti-government protests in Iraq led by Shias.
Shatt-al-ArabArvand RudShatt al Arab
A quick victory would restore Iraq's control over all of Shatt al-Arab, an area which Iraq had lost to Iran in 1975.
Under Saddam Hussein, Baathist Iraq claimed the entire waterway up to the Iranian shore as its territory.
Al-Arsuzi believed that unity of the Arab people, and the establishment of an Arab nation, would lead to its becoming as strong as (or stronger than) the Soviet Union and the United States.
After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States.
Popular FrontsfrontPopular Front against Fascism
The National Progressive Front (NPF) was a popular front led by the Iraqi Ba'ath Party, established on 17 July 1973 (the fifth anniversary of the 17 July Revolution).
Iraqi invasion of KuwaitinvadedIraq invaded Kuwait
Negotiations broke down, and on 2 August 1990, Iraq launched an invasion of Kuwait.
In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion.
Iraqgateincreased its support for Iraqaid the Iraqis
In March 1982, however, Iran began a successful counter-offensive, and the U.S. increased its support for Iraq to prevent Iran from forcing a surrender.
American support for Ba'athist Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, in which it fought against post-revolutionary Iran, included several billion dollars' worth of economic aid, the sale of dual-use technology, non-U.S. origin weaponry, military intelligence, and special operations training.