Baal

Ba'alBaʿalBa‘alBaalimBa'al HammonBa'al-gadBa‘al HammonBa alBa'al HadadBa'als
Baal, properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "owner," "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity.wikipedia
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Hadad

AdadIshkurIškur
Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. A minority propose that Baʿal was a native Canaanite deity whose cult was identified with or absorbed aspects of Adad's.
Hadad was also called Pidar, Rapiu, Baal-Zephon, or often simply Baʿal (Lord), but this title was also used for other gods.

Baalbek

BaalbeckHeliopolisBa'albek
The Lebanese city of Baalbeck was named after Baal.
The local Semitic god Baʿal Haddu was more often equated with Zeus or Jupiter or simply called the "Great God of Heliopolis", but the name may refer to the Egyptians' association of Baʿal with their great god Ra.

List of thunder gods

thunder godgod of thunderthunder
Nonetheless, Ugaritic records show him as a weather god, with particular power over lightning, wind, rain, and fertility.

Ancient Semitic religion

SemiticSemitic mythologySemitic deity
Like EN in Sumerian, the Akkadian bēlu and Northwest Semitic baʿal (as well as its feminine form baʿalah) was used as a title of various deities in the Mesopotamian and Semitic pantheons.
Like other peoples of the ancient Near East, the Canaanites were polytheistic, with families typically focusing worship on ancestral household gods and goddesses while acknowledging the existence of other deities such as Baal, Anath, and El.

Ancient Canaanite religion

CanaaniteCanaanite religionCanaanite mythology
A minority propose that Baʿal was a native Canaanite deity whose cult was identified with or absorbed aspects of Adad's. The Phoenician Baʿal is generally identified with either El or Dagan.
Like other people of the Ancient Near East Canaanite religious beliefs were polytheistic, with families typically focusing on veneration of the dead in the form of household gods and goddesses, the Elohim, while acknowledging the existence of other deities such as Baal and El, Asherah and Astarte.

Bel (mythology)

BelBelusBêl
Cognates include the Akkadian Bēlu (undefined), Amharic bal (undefined), and Arabic baʿl (undefined). Scholars propose that, as the cult of Hadad increased in importance, his true name came to be seen as too holy for any but the high priest to speak aloud and the alias "Lord" ("Baʿal") was used instead, as "Bel" was used for Marduk among the Babylonians and "Adonai" for Yahweh among the Israelites.
Linguistically Bel is an East Semitic form cognate with Northwest Semitic Baal with the same meaning.

Baal-zephon

Baal ZephonBaʿal ZephonBaal
As Baʿal Zaphon (Baʿal Ṣapunu), he was particularly associated with his palace atop Jebel Aqra (the ancient Mount Ṣapānu and classical Mons Casius).
Baal-zephon or Baalsapunu, properly Ba Pūnū or sapunu, was the form of the Canaanite storm god Baʿal (lit.

Phoenician language

PhoenicianPhoenician-PunicPhenician-Punic
These forms in turn derive from the vowel-less Northwest Semitic form (Phoenician & ). Phoenician and Aramaic inscriptions describe Bʿl Krntryš, "Baʿal of the Lebanon" (Bʿl Lbnn), "Baʿal of Sidon" (Bʿl Ṣdn), Bʿl Ṣmd, "Baʿal of the Heavens" (Baʿal Shamem or Shamayin), Baʿal ʾAddir (Bʿl ʾdr), Baʿal Hammon (Baʿal Ḥamon), Bʿl Mgnm.
The case endings in general must have been lost between the 9th century BC and the 7th century BC: the personal name rendered in Akkadian as ma-ti-nu-ba-a-li "Gift of Baal", with the case endings -u and -i, was written ma-ta-an-baa-al two centuries later.

Yam (god)

YamYammYammu
He held special enmity against snakes, both on their own and as representatives of Yammu ( lit. "Sea"), the Canaanite sea god and river god.
Of all the gods, despite being the champion of El, Yam holds special hostility against Baal Hadad, son of Dagon.

Daniel 7

Little horn77th chapter
Baʿal's conflict with Yammu is now generally regarded as the prototype of the vision recorded in the 7th chapter of the biblical Book of Daniel.

Lord

lordshipseigneurseigneurs
Baal, properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "owner," "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity.

Tannin (monster)

TanninTaninTaninn
He fought the Tannin (Tunnanu), the "Twisted Serpent" (Bṭn ʿqltn), "Litan the Fugitive Serpent" (Ltn Bṭn Brḥ, the biblical Leviathan), and the "Mighty One with Seven Heads" (Šlyṭ D.šbʿt Rašm).
Tannin appears in the Baal Cycle as one of the servants of Yam ( lit. "Sea") defeated by Baʿal ( lit. "Lord") or bound by his sister, ʿAnat.

Dagon

DaganDāganMarnas
The Phoenician Baʿal is generally identified with either El or Dagan.
In Ugarit around 1300 BC, Dagon had a large temple and was listed third in the pantheon following a father-god and Ēl, and preceding Baīl Ṣapān (that is the god Haddu or Hadad/Adad).

Melqart

MelkartMelcarthusMelqart stele
Many scholars believe that this describes Jezebel's attempt to introduce the worship of the Baʿal of Tyre, Melqart, to the Israelite capital Samaria in the 9th century.
Melqart was often titled the "Lord of Tyre" (Ba‘al Ṣūr) and was considered to be the progenitor of the Tyrian royal family.

King of the Gods

supreme godsupreme goddessking-of-the-gods
Baʿal Hammon was worshipped in the Tyrian colony of Carthage as their supreme god.

Weather god

storm godstorm godsstorm
Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. Nonetheless, Ugaritic records show him as a weather god, with particular power over lightning, wind, rain, and fertility.

Phoenicia

PhoeniciansPhoenicianPhoenicio
Regardless of their original relationship, by the 1st millennium, the two were distinct: Hadad was worshipped by the Aramaeans and Baʿal by the Phoenicians and other Canaanites.
Canaanite deities like Baal and Astarte were being worshipped from Cyprus to Sardinia, Malta, Sicily, Spain, Portugal, and most notably at Carthage (Qart Hadašt) in modern Tunisia.

Jezebel

Queen JezebelJezebelsmother
Many scholars believe that this describes Jezebel's attempt to introduce the worship of the Baʿal of Tyre, Melqart, to the Israelite capital Samaria in the 9th century.
According to the Biblical narrative, Jezebel, along with her husband, instituted the worship of Baal and Asherah on a national scale.

Sacred bull

bullBull (mythology)Bull worship
Both Baʿal and El were associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as it symbolized both strength and fertility.
Both Baʿal and El were associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as it symbolized both strength and fertility.

Elijah

Saint ElijahProphet EliasProphet Elijah
1 Kings 18 records an account of a contest between the prophet Elijah and Jezebel's priests.
In 1 Kings 18, Elijah defended the worship of the Hebrew God over that of the Canaanite deity Baal.

Names of God in Judaism

AdonaiGodHaShem
Scholars propose that, as the cult of Hadad increased in importance, his true name came to be seen as too holy for any but the high priest to speak aloud and the alias "Lord" ("Baʿal") was used instead, as "Bel" was used for Marduk among the Babylonians and "Adonai" for Yahweh among the Israelites. The title baʿal was a synonym in some contexts of the Hebrew adon ("Lord") and adonai ("My Lord") still used as aliases of the Lord of Israel Yahweh.
Baal, properly Baʿal, meant "owner" and, by extension, "lord", "master", and "husband" in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages.

Theophoric name

theophoricTheophorytheophoric names
Baʿal is well-attested in surviving inscriptions and was popular in theophoric names throughout the Levant but he is usually mentioned along with other gods, "his own field of action being seldom defined".
Theophoric names containing "Baal" were sometimes "censored" as -bosheth = "shameful one", whence Ishbosheth etc.

Baalshamin

Baal ShaminBaal-ShaminBaʿal Shamem
Phoenician and Aramaic inscriptions describe Bʿl Krntryš, "Baʿal of the Lebanon" (Bʿl Lbnn), "Baʿal of Sidon" (Bʿl Ṣdn), Bʿl Ṣmd, "Baʿal of the Heavens" (Baʿal Shamem or Shamayin), Baʿal ʾAddir (Bʿl ʾdr), Baʿal Hammon (Baʿal Ḥamon), Bʿl Mgnm.
The title was most often applied to Hadad, who is also often titled just Ba‘al.

Yahweh

GodGod of IsraelYah
Both sides offered a sacrifice to their respective gods: Ba'al failed to light his followers' sacrifice while Yahweh's heavenly fire burnt Elijah's altar to ashes, even after it had been soaked with water. The title baʿal was a synonym in some contexts of the Hebrew adon ("Lord") and adonai ("My Lord") still used as aliases of the Lord of Israel Yahweh.
Prominent in this group was Baal, who had his home on Mount Zaphon; over time Baal became the dominant Canaanite deity, so that El became the executive power and Baal the military power in the cosmos.

Adon

lord
The title baʿal was a synonym in some contexts of the Hebrew adon ("Lord") and adonai ("My Lord") still used as aliases of the Lord of Israel Yahweh.
He points to the myth of the struggle between Baal and Yam as evidence.