Baalbek

BaalbeckHeliopolisBa'albekBaalbecHeliopolis SyriacaBa'albakHeliopolis in PhoeniciaHeliopolis of PhoeniciaruinsBa'labakk
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (undefined, Syriac-Aramaic: ܒܥܠܒܟ) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city located east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about 85 km northeast of Beirut.wikipedia
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Temple of Bacchus

BacchusTemple of Bacchus at Baalbek
It is home to the Baalbek temple complex which includes two of the largest and grandest Roman temple ruins: the Temple of Bacchus and the Temple of Jupiter.
The Temple of Bacchus is part of the Baalbek temple complex located in the broad Al-biqā (Bekaa Valley), Lebanon.

Lebanon

LebaneseLebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (undefined, Syriac-Aramaic: ܒܥܠܒܟ) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city located east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about 85 km northeast of Beirut.
In the south of Lebanon, Jabal Amel, Baalbek and the Beqaa Valley was ruled by Shia feudal families under the Mamluks and the Ottoman Empire.

Litani River

LitaniLake LitaniLeontes
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (undefined, Syriac-Aramaic: ܒܥܠܒܟ) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city located east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about 85 km northeast of Beirut. A few miles from the swamp from which the Litani (the classical Leontes) and the Asi (the upper Orontes) flow, Baalbek may be the same as the manbaa al-nahrayn ("Source of the Two Rivers"), the abode of El in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle discovered in the 1920s and a separate serpent incantation.
The river rises in the fertile Beqaa Valley, west of Baalbek, and empties into the Mediterranean Sea north of Tyre.

Baalbek-Hermel Governorate

Baalbek-Hermel
It is the capital of Baalbek-Hermel Governorate.
The capital is at Baalbek.

Beirut

Beirut, LebanonWest BeirutEast Beirut
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (undefined, Syriac-Aramaic: ܒܥܠܒܟ) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city located east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about 85 km northeast of Beirut.
Its territory under Claudius reached the Bekaa valley and included Heliopolis (Baalbek): it was the only mostly Latin-speaking area in the Syria-Phoenicia region, because it was settled by Roman colonists who even promoted agriculture in the fertile lands around Yammoune.

Temple of Jupiter (Roman Heliopolis)

Temple of JupiterJupiter templetemple
It is home to the Baalbek temple complex which includes two of the largest and grandest Roman temple ruins: the Temple of Bacchus and the Temple of Jupiter.
The Temple of Jupiter is a colossal Roman temple, the largest of the Roman world, situated at the Baalbek complex in Heliopolis Syriaca (modern Lebanon).

Baal

Ba'alBaʿalBa‘al
The local Semitic god Baʿal Haddu was more often equated with Zeus or Jupiter or simply called the "Great God of Heliopolis", but the name may refer to the Egyptians' association of Baʿal with their great god Ra. During the Canaanite period, the local temples were largely devoted to the Heliopolitan Triad: a male god (Baʿal), his consort (Ashtart), and their son (Adon). During Classical Antiquity, the city's temple to Baʿal Haddu was conflated first with the worship of the Greek sun god Helios and then with the Greek and Roman sky god under the name "Heliopolitan Zeus" or "Jupiter".
The Lebanese city of Baalbeck was named after Baal.

Venus (mythology)

VenusVenus VictrixVenus Erycina
The gods that were worshipped there (Jupiter, Venus, and Bacchus) were equivalents of the Canaanite deities Hadad, Atargatis.
Venus Heliopolitana ("Venus of Heliopolis Syriaca"), worshipped at Baalbek.

Heliopolitan Triad

During the Canaanite period, the local temples were largely devoted to the Heliopolitan Triad: a male god (Baʿal), his consort (Ashtart), and their son (Adon).
The cult of the Heliopolitan Triad was Canaanite in essence but the Romans adopted it when they conquered the city of Heliopolis (modern Baalbeck) in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon.

Phoenicia under Roman rule

PhoeniciaRoman PhoeniciaRoman Lebanon
In bronze statuary attested from Byblos in Phoenicia and Tortosa in Spain, he was encased in a pillarlike term and surrounded (like the Greco-Persian Mithras) by busts representing the sun, moon, and five known planets.
The area around Berytus (and around Heliopolis, but in minor percentage) was the only Latin speaking and Romanized in the Aramaic Phoenicia: this characteristic was fundamental in the creation of the Maronite areas of the Lebanon of our times

Beqaa Valley

Bekaa ValleyBekaaBeqaa
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (undefined, Syriac-Aramaic: ܒܥܠܒܟ) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city located east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about 85 km northeast of Beirut.
The majority of the inhabitants of the northern districts of Beqaa, Baalbek and Hermel, are Lebanese Shia, with the exception of the town of Deir el Ahmar, whose inhabitants are Christians.

List of Catholic titular sees

List of titular seestitular seetitular sees
In Catholicism, its titular see is distinguished as Heliopolis in Phoenicia, from its former Roman province Phoenice.

Berytus

Roman Berytus
From 15 to 193, it formed part of the territory of Berytus.
Its territory under Claudius reached the Bekaa valley and included Heliopolis: it was the only area mostly Latin-speaking in the Syria-Phoenicia region, because settled by Roman colonists who even promoted agriculture in the fertile lands around actual Yammoune.

Roman temple

templetemplesCaesareum
During Classical Antiquity, the city's temple to Baʿal Haddu was conflated first with the worship of the Greek sun god Helios and then with the Greek and Roman sky god under the name "Heliopolitan Zeus" or "Jupiter".
Different formulae were followed in the Pantheon, Rome and a small temple at Baalbek (usually called the "Temple of Venus"), where the door is behind a full portico, though very different ways of doing this are used.

Salih ibn Mirdas

Asad al-DawlaMirdasid emirSalih
It was sacked and razed by the Byzantines under John I in 974, raided by Basil II in 1000, and occupied by Salih ibn Mirdas, emir of Aleppo, in 1025.
During this tribal rebellion, Salih annexed the central Syrian towns of Homs, Baalbek and Sidon, before conquering Fatimid-held Aleppo in 1025, bringing "to success the plan which guided his [Banu Kilab] forebears for a century", according to historian Thierry Bianquis.

Rabbula

Rabbulas Bishop of Edessa
435 life of Rabbula, bishop of Edessa.
According to the Life of Rabbula, immediately before becoming bishop of Edessa, Rabbula, in consort with another monk, Eusebius, the future bishop of Tella, went to Baalbek (Heliopolis) in Lebanon (Phoenicia Libanensis), one of the last areas with pagans in order to seek martyrdom by provoking the pagans.

Turan-Shah

Turan ShahShams ad-Din Turanshahal-Malik al-Mu'azzam Shams ad-Dawla Turan-Shah
He was then joined by the main army, riding north under Baldwin and Humphrey of Toron; they defeated Saladin's elder brother Turan Shah in August at Ayn al-Jarr and plundered Baalbek.
Shams ad-Din Turanshah ibn Ayyub al-Malik al-Mu'azzam Shams ad-Dawla Fakhr ad-Din known simply as Turanshah (died 27 June 1180) was the Ayyubid emir (prince) of Yemen (1174–1176), Damascus (1176–1179), Baalbek (1178–1179) and finally Alexandria where he died in 1180.

Saladin

Salah ad-DinSaladdinSalah ad-Din (Saladin)
Zengi strengthened its fortifications and bestowed the territory on his lieutenant Ayyub, father of Saladin.
In 1139, Ayyub and his family moved to Mosul, where Imad ad-Din Zengi acknowledged his debt and appointed Ayyub commander of his fortress in Baalbek.

Hagia Sophia

Haghia SophiaHagia Sophia MosqueAyasofya
Under the reign of Justinian, eight of the complex's Corinthian columns were disassembled and shipped to Constantinople for incorporation in the rebuilt Hagia Sophia sometime between 532 and 537.
He entrusted it to Isidorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus, who used lighter materials and elevated the dome by "30 feet" (about 6.25 m) – giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 m. Moreover, Isidorus changed the dome type, erecting a ribbed dome with pendentives, whose diameter lay between 32.7 and 33.5 m. Under Justinian's orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon, and shipped to Constantinople around 560.

Homs

EmesaHimsEmirate of Homs
One of these was taken to Rome by the emperor Elagabalus, a former priest "of the sun" at nearby Emesa, who erected a temple for it on the Palatine Hill.
In 32, Heliopolis and the Beqaa Valley came under the kingdom's control.

Ancient Greek religion

Greek PolytheismGreek religionGreek
During Classical Antiquity, the city's temple to Baʿal Haddu was conflated first with the worship of the Greek sun god Helios and then with the Greek and Roman sky god under the name "Heliopolitan Zeus" or "Jupiter". In Greek religion, Helios was both the sun in the sky and its personification as a god.
138-161 AD), whose commissions include the Baalbec Temple of Bacchus, arguably the most impressive survival from the imperial period (though the Temple of Jupiter-Baal next to it was larger).

Orontes River

OrontesAsi RiverOrontes Valley
A few miles from the swamp from which the Litani (the classical Leontes) and the Asi (the upper Orontes) flow, Baalbek may be the same as the manbaa al-nahrayn ("Source of the Two Rivers"), the abode of El in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle discovered in the 1920s and a separate serpent incantation.

Battle of Yarmouk

Battle of YarmukYarmoukYarmuk
Baalbek was occupied by the Muslim army in 634 (Byzantine defeat at Yarmouk in 637 ([[AH (era)|]] 16), either peacefully and by agreement or following a heroic defense and yielding 2000 oz of gold, 4000 oz of silver, 2000 silk vests, and 1000 swords.
Having secured southern Palestine, Muslim forces now advanced up the trade route, and Tiberias and Baalbek fell without much struggle and conquered Emesa early in 636.

Ayyubid dynasty

AyyubidAyyubidsAyyubid Sultanate
When as-Salih Ayyub's successor Turan Shah was murdered in 1250, al-Nasir Yusuf, the sultan of Aleppo, seized Damascus and demanded Baalbek's surrender.
Ayyub was made commander of Ba'albek and Shirkuh entered the service of Zangi's son, Nur ad-Din.

Mu'in ad-Din Unur

UnurUnur of DamascusMu'in al-Din Anur
After Buri's murder, Muhammad successfully defended himself against the attacks of his brothers Ismaʿil and Mahmud and gave Baalbek to his vizier Unur.
On June 22, 1139, Shihab ad-Din was assassinated in Damascus; Jamal ad-Din, emir of Baalbek, was chosen as his successor, and Mu'in ad-Din was chosen to govern Baalbek in his absence.