Babak Khorramdin

Statue of Babak Khorramdin in Babek city, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan Republic
Map of Azerbaijan in the 9th century.
View of the landscape from the castle.
Babak Castle.
Babak Castle.
Babak Castle.
The castle could be seen at the peak between fog.
The castle from the camp.

One of the main Iranian revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān ("Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate.

- Babak Khorramdin

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Khurramites

Iranian religious and political movement with its roots in the Zoroastrian sect founded by Mazdak.

The late leader of the Khurramīyah movement, Babak Khorramdin was the follower of al-Muqanna‘, a devout Zoroastrian and Mazdaean.

However, its true claim to fame was its adoption by Babak Khorramdin as a basis to rebel against the Abbasid Caliphate.

Al-Mu'tasim

The eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 until his death in 842.

Byzantine envoys before al-Mu'tasim (seated, right), miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes (12th/13th century)
Map of the Muslim expansion during the 7th and 8th centuries and of the Muslim world under the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, from the of Gustav Droysen (1886)
A gold dinar of al-Ma'mun, minted in Egypt in 830/1
The Byzantine embassy of John the Grammarian in 829 to al-Ma'mun (seated left) from Theophilos (seated right)
Silver dirham of al-Mu'tasim, minted at al-Muhammadiya in 836/7
Map of Abbasid Samarra
Map of the events associated with the miḥna from 833 to 852
Babak parlays with al-Afshin, from Balami's Tārīkhnāma, 14th century
Map of the Byzantine and Arab campaigns in the years 837–838, showing Theophilos's raid into Upper Mesopotamia and al-Mu'tasim's retaliatory invasion of Asia Minor, culminating in the conquest of Amorium.
Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes depicting the Arab sack of Amorium in 838
Family tree of the descendants of al-Mu'tasim. Al-Mu'tasim was the forefather of all subsequent Abbasid caliphs.

The two major internal campaigns of the reign were against the long-running Khurramite uprising of Babak Khorramdin in Adharbayjan, which was suppressed by al-Afshin in 835–837, and against Mazyar, the autonomous ruler of Tabaristan, who had clashed with the Tahirid governor of Khorasan and risen up in revolt.

Azerbaijan (Iran)

Historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

Three provinces of Iranian Azerbaijan region
Caspian sea and Azerbaijan position on the left side of the map in the 10th century. The original map is in Ṣūrat al-’Arḍ (صورة الارض; "The face of the Earth") Ibn Hawqal (977) Beyrut) page 419
An old map of Azerbaijan and its neighboring regions depicted by the Ibn Hawqal 1145 AD.
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Muhammad al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154. Azerbaijan in the southwest of the Caspian sea. South is towards the top.
Map of Adharbayjan in the 9th-century
Aras River near Joulfa
Mountains of Arasbaran
Industry and mining of Iranian Azerbaijan in North-west
Four provinces of Iranian Azerbaijan
5 regions of Iran, Region 3 includes Iranian Azerbaijan and its capital isTabriz, East Azerbaijan
Sassanid king, Bahram Gur is a great favourite in Persian tradition and poetry. Depiction of Nezami's "Bahram and the Indian Princess in the Black Pavilion" Khamse ("Quintet"), mid-16th century Safavid era.
Ashiks by Azerbaijani traditional clothing in Nowruz-Tabriz
An ATA Airlines A320-200 landing at Tabriz International Airport
Sahand TV main building
Sahand Stadium: Has a capacity of about 70,000 and is located in Tabriz
Sabalan
Sahand
Eynali
Shorabil Lake at night.
Marmishu Lake in Urmia County
Neor Lake on the Ardabil — Khalkhal road
The Ardabil Carpet
Tabriz rug
Heriz rug
Zanjan rug
Karadagh rug
Muharram in Ardabil
Blue Mosque in Tabriz
Jameh Mosque of Urmia
Jameh Mosque of Zanjan
Bazaar of Tabriz
Sheikh Safi al-Din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble
Takht-e Soleymān
Soltanieh Dome in Soltaniyeh
Qara Klisa
Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Physics department interior of IASBS in Zanjan
University of Zanjan
Joseph Cochran in Westminster Hospital Urmia (now Urmia University of Medical Sciences)
Shahid Chamran Hall (central library) — of the University of Urmia
Behnam House is part of the School of Architecture of Tabriz Islamic Arts University
University of Tabriz's Tower.
Maragheh observatory
Tabriz Urban Railway Organization (TURO), El-Gölü Station.
Tabriz Railway Station.

After the revolt of Babak Khorramdin, who was a Zoroastrian of neo-Mazdakite background, the Abbasid caliphate's grip on Azerbaijan weakened, allowing native dynasties to rise in Azerbaijan.

Al-Ma'mun

The seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.

Gold dinar of al-Ma'mun, minted in Egypt in 830/1
Silver Dirham of Al-Ma'mun. AH 199-218 / AD 813–833. Dirham weight 25mm, 3.19 g, 3h. Medinat Isbahan mint dated 205 AD (820/1 AD)
The Byzantine embassy of John the Grammarian in 829 to Ma'mun (depicted left) from Theophilos (depicted right)
Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma'mun sends an envoy to Theophilos
The populace pays Allegiance to the Abbasid caliph, Al-Ma'mun in 813. (from the book Tarikh-i Alfi 1593 CE)
Image of Almanon (crater)
Fals (Copper Coin) of Al-Ma'mun. Dated AH 217 (AD 832/3). Jerusalem mint.

An ongoing problem for al-Ma'mun was the uprising headed by Babak Khorramdin.

Gibbeting

Any instrument of public execution , but gibbeting refers to the use of a gallows-type structure from which the dead or dying bodies of criminals were hanged on public display to deter other existing or potential criminals.

The reconstructed gallows-style gibbet at Caxton Gibbet, in Cambridgeshire, England
Captain Kidd, who was tried and executed for piracy, hanging in chains
1899 sketch of John Breads's Gibbet Iron, Rye, East Sussex.
A gibbet with a dummy inside
Hanging cage at the main gate to Corciano, Province of Perugia, Italy
The gibbet in which Marie-Josephte Corriveau was exhibited after her execution, the "cage" of La Corriveau
Execution of Joseph Süss
Combe Gibbet, a replica gibbet in Berkshire

In 838, the Iranian hero Babak Khorramdin had his hands and feet cut off by the Abbasid Caliphate and was then gibbeted alive while sewn into a cow's skin with the horns at ear level to crush his head gradually as the skin dried out.

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

Landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

A modern mausoleum marks the place in Nakhchivan City traditionally believed to be the site of Noah's grave.
The Nakhichevan region (light purple) at the time of Armenia's Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908–1021).
Caucasus region, beginning of the 13th century
Silver coin of Shah Suleiman I ((r. undefined – undefined)1666–1694), struck at the Nakhchivan mint, dated 1684/5
Armenian cemetery in Julfa, 1830, by Francis Rawdon Chesney
Map of the Nakhchivan ASSR within the Soviet Union.
Subdivisions of Nakhchivan
Topographic map of the region
Examples of Armenian khachkars from Julfa.
Heydar Aliyev, former President of Azerbaijan, was born in Nakhchivan.
Garabaghlar Mausoleum
Palace of Nakhchivan Khans
Juma Mosque, Ordubad
Momine Khatun Mausoleum
Yusuf ibn Kuseir Mausoleum in Nakhchivan City
Juma Mosque, Ordubad
Khanegah tomb
Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhchivan City
Brickwork and faience pattern on the Momine Khatun mausoleum
Another view of the mausoleum
Medieval-period ram-shaped grave monuments collected near the Momine Khatun mausoleum
Ram-shaped grave monument embedded in concrete
The Batabat region of Shakhbuz
General view of Ordubad with a range of high mountains in neighboring Iran in the distance
Houses in Ordubad photographed near the east bank of Ordubad-chay (also known as the Dubendi stream)
Narrow streets in Ordubad
A mosque in a quarter of Ordubad
Aras River on the Iranian border near Julfa
Mountainous terrain of Nakhchivan
Armenian khachkar cemetery at Julfa

In the 8th century, Nakhchivan was one of the scenes of an uprising against the Arabs led by Persian revolutionary Babak Khorramdin of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān ("those of the joyous religion" in Persian).

Abu Hanifa Dinawari

Persian Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.

Ancient Persian attire worn by soldiers and a nobleman. The History of Costume by Braun & Scheider (1861–1880).

He concludes the history with the suppression of Babak Khorramdin's rebellion in 837, and the subsequent execution of the Iranian general Khaydhar ibn Kawus al-Afshin.

Mazdak

Zoroastrian mobad (priest), Iranian reformer, prophet and religious reformer who gained influence during the reign of the Sasanian emperor Kavadh I.

Illustration of the execution of Mazdak from a copy of the Shahnameh

In the 9th century, the Khurramites, an egalitarian religious sect possibly originating from Mazdakism, led a revolt under the leadership of Babak Khorramdin against the Abbasid Caliphate and successfully defended large territories against the Caliphate's forces for some twenty years.

Azerbaijanis

Azerbaijanis (Azərbaycanlılar, آذربایجانلیلار) or Azeris (Azərilər, آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan Türkləri, آذربایجان تۆرکلری), are a Turkic people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, with a mixed heritage of Caucasian, Iranian and Turkic elements.

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Painting of Atropates, meeting with Alexander the Great. Iran's historic Azerbaijan region (also known as Iranian Azerbaijan) is believed to be named after him.
Shirvan Tatar (i.e. Azerbaijani). Engraving from book of Jean Baptiste Benoît Eyriès. Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique: résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes... T. I, 1839
Map of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic presented by the Azerbaijani delegation Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
First flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (till 9 November 1918)
Soldiers and officers of the army of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918
Sattar Khan (1868–1914) was a major revolutionary figure in the late Qajar period in Iran.
Azerbaijani girl from Shusha in silk national garments.
Azerbaijani-speaking regions
Russian Empire postcard depicting Tatars (i.e. Azerbaijanis) from Alexandropol (Gyumri)
Ashiks performance in Tabriz
Iran's highest-ranking official, the supreme leader Ali Khamenei is Iranian Azeri on his father's side.
Azeri woman from Baku (1900 postcard)
Portrait of Muhammad Fuzûlî by Azim Azimzade (1914). Fuzûlî is considered one of the greatest Azerbaijani poets.
Mugham triads
Chess player Shakhriyar Mamedyarov
Two-time Paralympic judo champion (2004, 2008) Ilham Zakiyev

This influx sparked a major rebellion in Iranian Azerbaijan from 816 to 837, led by a Persian Zoroastrian commoner named Babak Khorramdin.

Abu Muslim

Persian Muslim military general in service of the Abbasid caliphs Saffah ((r.

Abbasid silver dirham in the name of Abu Muslim of 749/50

Even Babak claimed descent from him.