Babylonian astronomy

Babylonian astronomersBabylonianastronomerBabylonian astronomerBabylonian recordsBabyloniansChaldean astronomer(neo-Babylonian) astronomersarithmeticalastronomy from Babylon
Babylonian astronomy was the study or recording of celestial objects during early history Mesopotamia.wikipedia
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Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
In conjunction with their mythology, the Sumerians developed a form of astronomy/astrology that had an influence on Babylonian culture.
These include the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Constellation

constellationsEuropean constellationModern constellation
Babylonian astronomy seemed to have focused on a select group of stars and constellations known as Ziqpu stars.
The origins of the zodiac remain historically uncertain; its astrological divisions became prominent c. 400 BC in Babylonian or Chaldean astronomy,.

Star

starsstellarmassive star
Babylonian astronomy seemed to have focused on a select group of stars and constellations known as Ziqpu stars.
The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (c.

Babylonian star catalogues

Babylonian zodiacearliest known star cataloguesMUL
Modern knowledge of Sumerian astronomy is indirect, via the earliest Babylonian star catalogues dating from about 1200 BC. The MUL.APIN contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal risings and settings of the planets, and lengths of daylight as measured by a water clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalations.
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
They began studying and recording their belief system and philosophies dealing with an ideal nature of the universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems.
Babylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks.

MUL.APIN

The MUL.APIN contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal risings and settings of the planets, and lengths of daylight as measured by a water clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalations.
MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.

Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
Babylonian astronomy was the study or recording of celestial objects during early history Mesopotamia.
Logic was employed to some extent in Babylonian astronomy and medicine.

Clay tablet

tablettabletsclay tablets
These records can be found on Sumerian clay tablets, inscribed in cuneiform, dated approximately to 3500–3200 BC.
Tablets on Babylonian astronomical records date back to around 1800 BCE.

Geocentric model

geocentricPtolemaic systemPtolemaic
Their worldview was not exactly geocentric either.
His main astronomical work, the Almagest, was the culmination of centuries of work by Hellenic, Hellenistic and Babylonian astronomers.

Ancient Greek astronomy

Greek astronomyGreek astronomerastronomy
Nevertheless, the surviving fragments show that Babylonian astronomy was the first "successful attempt at giving a refined mathematical description of astronomical phenomena" and that "all subsequent varieties of scientific astronomy, in the Hellenistic world, in India, in Islam, and in the West … depend upon Babylonian astronomy in decisive and fundamental ways." They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
Most of the names of the stars, planets, and constellations of the northern hemisphere are inherited from the terminology of the Greek astronomy, which are however indeed transliterated from the empirical knowledge in Babylonian astronomy, characterized by its theoretical model formulation in terms of algebraic and numerical relations, and to a lesser extent from Egyptian astronomy.

Berossus

BerosusBerossosBerosus the Chaldean
330 BC), Berossus (3rd century BCE), and Sudines (fl. 240 BCE).
Berossus was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC.

Egyptian astronomy

EgyptianastronomyEgyptian astronomers
The Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy later used Nabonassar's reign to fix the beginning of an era, since he felt that the earliest usable observations began at this time. They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, the Egyptian tradition merged with Greek astronomy and Babylonian astronomy, with the city of Alexandria in Lower Egypt becoming the centre of scientific activity across the Hellenistic world.

Naburimannu

Naburianos
Chaldean astronomers known to have followed this model include Naburimannu (fl.
Nabu-ri-man-nu (also spelled Nabu-rimanni; Greek sources called him Ναβουριανός, Nabourianos, Latin Naburianus) (fl. c. 6th – 3rd century BC) was a Chaldean astronomer and mathematician.

Universe

physical worldThe Universeuniverses
They began studying and recording their belief system and philosophies dealing with an ideal nature of the universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems.
Astronomical models of the Universe were proposed soon after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers, who viewed the Universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus.

Cosmology

cosmologistcosmologicalcosmologies
In contrast to the world view presented in Mesopotamian and Assyro-Babylonian literature, particularly in Mesopotamian and Babylonian mythology, very little is known about the cosmology and world view of the ancient Babylonian astrologers and astronomers.

Ephemeris

ephemeridesAstronomical Ephemerisastronomical table
Only fragments of Babylonian astronomy have survived, consisting largely of contemporary clay tablets containing astronomical diaries, ephemerides and procedure texts, hence current knowledge of Babylonian planetary theory is in a fragmentary state.

Kidinnu

KidenasKiddinu
6th–3rd century BC), Kidinnu (d.
possibly died 14 August 330 BC) was a Chaldean astronomer and mathematician.

Ptolemy

Claudius PtolemyClaudius PtolemaeusPtolemaic
The Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy later used Nabonassar's reign to fix the beginning of an era, since he felt that the earliest usable observations began at this time. They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek astronomers such as Hipparchus had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions.

Sudines

Soudines
330 BC), Berossus (3rd century BCE), and Sudines (fl. 240 BCE).
He is mentioned as one of the famous Chaldean mathematicians and astronomer-astrologers by later Roman writers like Strabo (Geografia 16:1–6).

Hipparchus

HipparchosHipparchus of NicaeaHipparchus of Nicea
They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
Hipparchus's long draconitic lunar period (5,458 months = 5,923 lunar nodal periods) also appears a few times in Babylonian records.

Babylonian astrology

BabylonianBabylonian astrologersastrologers
In contrast to the world view presented in Mesopotamian and Assyro-Babylonian literature, particularly in Mesopotamian and Babylonian mythology, very little is known about the cosmology and world view of the ancient Babylonian astrologers and astronomers. The Babylonian astrologers also laid the foundations of what would eventually become Western astrology.

Minute and second of arc

masarcsecondarc second
These units originated in Babylonian astronomy as sexagesimal subdivisions of the degree; they are used in fields that involve very small angles, such as astronomy, optometry, ophthalmology, optics, navigation, land surveying, and marksmanship.

Zodiac

signs of the zodiactropical zodiaczodiacal signs
His descriptions of many constellations, especially the twelve signs of the zodiac show similarities to Babylonian.
The zodiac was in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period (mid-1st millennium BC), which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic.

Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa

Venus tablets of Ammisaduqaastronomical documentsVenus tablet
Centuries of Babylonian observations of celestial phenomena were recorded in the series of cuneiform tablets known as the Enûma Anu Enlil—the oldest significant astronomical text that we possess is Tablet 63 of the Enûma Anu Enlil, the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which lists the first and last visible risings of Venus over a period of about 21 years.

Jupiter

JovianGioveplanet Jupiter
More recent analysis of previously unpublished cuneiform tablets in the British Museum, dated between 350 and 50 BC, demonstrates that Babylonian astronomers sometimes used geometrical methods, prefiguring the methods of the Oxford Calculators, to describe the motion of Jupiter over time in an abstract mathematical space.
The observation of Jupiter dates back to at least the Babylonian astronomers of the 7th or 8th century BC.