Babylonian astronomy

Babylonian astronomersBabylonianastronomerBabylonian recordsBabyloniansChaldean astronomerChaldeans(neo-Babylonian) astronomersarithmeticalastronomy from Babylon
Babylonian astronomy was the study or recording of celestial objects during early history Mesopotamia.wikipedia
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Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
In conjunction with their mythology, the Sumerians developed a form of astronomy/astrology that had an influence on Babylonian culture.
The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, Maya, and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky.

Babylonian star catalogues

earliest known star cataloguesMULBabylonians
Modern knowledge of Sumerian astronomy is indirect, via the earliest Babylonian star catalogues dating from about 1200 BC. The fact that many star names appear in Sumerian suggests a continuity reaching into the Early Bronze Age. The MUL.APIN contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal risings and settings of the planets, and lengths of daylight as measured by a water clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalations.
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.

Star

starsmassive starstellar radius
The oldest accurately dated star chart was the result of ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC. The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period (c. 1531–1155 BC).

MUL.APIN

The MUL.APIN contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal risings and settings of the planets, and lengths of daylight as measured by a water clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalations.
MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
They began studying and recording their belief system and philosophies dealing with an ideal nature of the universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems.
Babylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks.

Berossus

BerosusBerossosBerosus of Chaldea
6th–3rd century BC), Kidinnu (d. 330 BC), Berossus (3rd century BCE), and Sudines (fl. 240 BCE).
Berossus or Berosus (name possibly derived from, "Bel is his shepherd"; Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Versions of two excerpts of his writings survive, at several removes from the original.

Ancient Greek astronomy

Greek astronomerastronomyGreek
Nevertheless, the surviving fragments show that Babylonian astronomy was the first "successful attempt at giving a refined mathematical description of astronomical phenomena" and that "all subsequent varieties of scientific astronomy, in the Hellenistic world, in India, in Islam, and in the West … depend upon Babylonian astronomy in decisive and fundamental ways." They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
It was influenced by Egyptian and especially Babylonian astronomy; in turn, it influenced Indian, Arabic-Islamic and Western European astronomy.

Kidinnu

KiddinuKidenas
6th–3rd century BC), Kidinnu (d. 330 BC), Berossus (3rd century BCE), and Sudines (fl. 240 BCE).
Kidinnu (also Kidunnu) (fl. 4th century BC? possibly died 14 August 330 BC) was a Chaldean astronomer and mathematician.

Naburimannu

Naburianos
Chaldean astronomers known to have followed this model include Naburimannu (fl.
Nabu-ri-man-nu (also spelled Nabu-rimanni; Greek sources called him Ναβουριανός, Nabourianos, Latin Naburianus) (fl. c. 6th – 3rd century BC) was a Chaldean astronomer and mathematician.

Egyptian astronomy

EgyptianEgyptian astronomersastronomy
The Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy later used Nabonassar's reign to fix the beginning of an era, since he felt that the earliest usable observations began at this time. They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, the Egyptian tradition merged with Greek astronomy and Babylonian astronomy, with the city of Alexandria in Lower Egypt becoming the centre of scientific activity across the Hellenistic world.

Ephemeris

ephemeridesAstronomical tablesorbital data
Only fragments of Babylonian astronomy have survived, consisting largely of contemporary clay tablets containing astronomical diaries, ephemerides and procedure texts, hence current knowledge of Babylonian planetary theory is in a fragmentary state.
1st millennium BC – Ephemerides in Babylonian astronomy.

Geocentric model

geocentricPtolemaicgeocentrism
Their worldview was not exactly geocentric either.
His main astronomical work, the Almagest, was the culmination of centuries of work by Hellenic, Hellenistic and Babylonian astronomers.

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamianancient MesopotamiaIraq
Babylonian astronomy was the study or recording of celestial objects during early history Mesopotamia.
Logic was employed to some extent in Babylonian astronomy and medicine.

Minute and second of arc

masarcsecondarc second
first Greek known to divide the circle in 360 degrees of 60 arc minutes.
These units originated in Babylonian astronomy as sexagesimal subdivisions of the degree; they are used in fields that involve very small angles, such as astronomy, optometry, ophthalmology, optics, navigation, land surveying, and marksmanship.

Ptolemy

Claudius PtolemyPtolemaicPtol.
The Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy later used Nabonassar's reign to fix the beginning of an era, since he felt that the earliest usable observations began at this time. They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek astronomers such as Hipparchus had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions.

Sudines

6th–3rd century BC), Kidinnu (d. 330 BC), Berossus (3rd century BCE), and Sudines (fl. 240 BCE).
He is mentioned as one of the famous Chaldean mathematicians and astronomer-astrologers by later Roman writers like Strabo (Geografia 16:1–6).

Saros (astronomy)

SarosSeriesSeries (and member)
The systematic records of ominous phenomena in Babylonian astronomical diaries that began at this time allowed for the discovery of a repeating 18-year Saros cycle of lunar eclipses, for example.
The earliest discovered historical record of what is known as the saros is by Chaldean (neo-Babylonian) astronomers in the last several centuries BC.

Zodiac

signs of the zodiactropical zodiaczodiacal signs
His descriptions of many constellations, especially the twelve signs of the zodiac show similarities to Babylonian.
The zodiac was in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period (mid-1st millennium BC), which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic.

Cosmology

cosmologistcosmologicalcosmologies
In contrast to the world view presented in Mesopotamian and Assyro-Babylonian literature, particularly in Mesopotamian and Babylonian mythology, very little is known about the cosmology and world view of the ancient Babylonian astrologers and astronomers.

Hipparchus

hipparchHipparchus of NiceaObservatory at Rhodes
They are known to have had a significant influence on the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, as well as other Hellenistic astronomers.
Hipparchus's long draconitic lunar period (5,458 months = 5,923 lunar nodal periods) also appears a few times in Babylonian records.

Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanetary-mass object
Similarly various relations between the periods of the planets were known.
Venus, Mercury, and the outer planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were all identified by Babylonian astronomers.

Degree (angle)

°degreesdegree
first Greek known to divide the circle in 360 degrees of 60 arc minutes.
The earliest trigonometry, used by the Babylonian astronomers and their Greek successors, was based on chords of a circle.

Clay tablet

tablettabletsclay tablets
These records can be found on Sumerian clay tablets, inscribed in cuneiform, dated approximately to 3500–3200 BC.
Tablets on Babylonian astronomical records date back to around 1800BC.

Otto E. Neugebauer

NeugebauerO. NeugebauerOtto Neugebauer
Most known astronomical tablets have been described by Abraham Sachs and later published by Otto Neugebauer in the Astronomical Cuneiform Texts (ACT).
In a career of sixty-five years, he largely created our current understanding of mathematical astronomy from Babylon and Egypt, through Greco-Roman antiquity, to India, Islam, and Europe of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Tide

tidallow tidehigh tide
According to Lucio Russo, his arguments were probably related to the phenomenon of tides.
In the 2nd century BC, the Babylonian astronomer, Seleucus of Seleucia, correctly described the phenomenon of tides in order to support his heliocentric theory.