Babylonian star catalogues

Babylonian zodiacearliest known star cataloguesMULBabylonian cataloguesBabylonian constellationBabyloniansstar cataloguesstar constellationsstar namesThree Stars Each
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.wikipedia
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Babylonian astronomy

Babylonian astronomersBabylonianastronomer
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.
Modern knowledge of Sumerian astronomy is indirect, via the earliest Babylonian star catalogues dating from about 1200 BC.

Triangulum

Triangulum (constellation)TriTriangula
Star catalogues after Three Stars Each include the MUL.APIN list named after the first Babylonian constellation MUL APIN, "the Plough", which is the current Triangulum constellation plus Gamma Andromedae.
In the Babylonian star catalogues, Triangulum, together with Gamma Andromedae, formed the constellation known as MUL APIN "The Plough".

MUL.APIN

Star catalogues after Three Stars Each include the MUL.APIN list named after the first Babylonian constellation MUL APIN, "the Plough", which is the current Triangulum constellation plus Gamma Andromedae.
It is in the tradition of earlier star catalogues, the so-called Three Stars Each lists, but represents an expanded version based on more accurate observation, likely compiled around 1000 BC.

Pleiades

Pleiades star clusterThe PleiadesPleiades cluster
The determiner glyph for "constellation" or "star" in these lists is MUL, originally a pictograph of three stars, as it were a triplet of AN signs; e. g. the Pleiades are referred to as a "star cluster" or "star of stars" in the lists, written as MUL.MUL, or MUL MUL. At the beginning of the list with MUL.MUL, the Pleiades, corresponds to the situation in the Early to Middle Bronze Age when the Sun at vernal equinox was close to the Pleiades in Taurus (closest in the 23rd century BCE), and not yet in Aries.
The Babylonian star catalogues name the Pleiades, meaning "stars" (literally "star star"), and they head the list of stars along the ecliptic, reflecting the fact that they were close to the point of vernal equinox around the 23rd century BC.

Aries (constellation)

AriesAriAries constellation
At the beginning of the list with MUL.MUL, the Pleiades, corresponds to the situation in the Early to Middle Bronze Age when the Sun at vernal equinox was close to the Pleiades in Taurus (closest in the 23rd century BCE), and not yet in Aries.
In the description of the Babylonian zodiac given in the clay tablets known as the MUL.APIN, the constellation, now known as Aries, was the final station along the ecliptic.

Gamma Andromedae

γ AndromedaeAlmachγ And
Star catalogues after Three Stars Each include the MUL.APIN list named after the first Babylonian constellation MUL APIN, "the Plough", which is the current Triangulum constellation plus Gamma Andromedae.

Determinative

Ddeterminerssemagram
The determiner glyph for "constellation" or "star" in these lists is MUL, originally a pictograph of three stars, as it were a triplet of AN signs; e. g. the Pleiades are referred to as a "star cluster" or "star of stars" in the lists, written as MUL.MUL, or MUL MUL.

Orion (constellation)

OrionOrion constellationconstellation of Orion
The Babylonian star catalogues of the Late Bronze Age name Orion MUL SIPA.ZI.AN.NA, "The Heavenly Shepherd" or "True Shepherd of Anu" – Anu being the chief god of the heavenly realms.

Aquarius (constellation)

AquariusAquarius constellationconstellation Aquarius
Aquarius is identified as GU.LA "The Great One" in the Babylonian star catalogues and represents the god Ea himself, who is commonly depicted holding an overflowing vase.

Pisces (constellation)

PiscesPisces constellationPsc
The current definition of Pisces is the youngest of the zodiacal constellations.
Pisces originates from some composition of the Babylonian constellations Šinunutu 4 "the great swallow" in current western Pisces, and Anunitum the "Lady of the Heaven", at the place of the northern fish.

Constellation

constellationsEuropean constellationModern constellation
The oldest Babylonian catalogues of stars and constellations date back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, most notably the Three Stars Each texts and the MUL.APIN, an expanded and revised version based on more accurate observation from around 1000 BC.

Capricornus

CapricornCapricornoCap
The constellation was first attested in depictions on a cylinder-seal from around the 21st century BCE, it was explicitly recorded in the Babylonian star catalogues before 1000 BCE.

Enuma Anu Enlil

Enūma Anu EnlilEnûma Anu Enlilclay tablets

Babylonia

BabyloniansBabylonianBabylonian Empire
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.

Cuneiform

cuneiform scriptAkkadian cuneiformSumerian cuneiform
These star catalogues, written in cuneiform script, contained lists of constellations, individual stars, and planets.

Akkadian Empire

AkkadAkkadianAkkadians
The earliest catalogue, Three Stars Each, mentions stars of Akkad, of Amurru, of Elam and others.

Amorites

AmoriteMartuAmurru
The earliest catalogue, Three Stars Each, mentions stars of Akkad, of Amurru, of Elam and others.

Elam

ElamitesSusianaElamite Empire
The earliest catalogue, Three Stars Each, mentions stars of Akkad, of Amurru, of Elam and others. Various sources have theorized a Sumerian origin for these Babylonian constellations, but an Elamite origin has also been proposed.

Sumer

SumeriansSumeriaSumerian
Various sources have theorized a Sumerian origin for these Babylonian constellations, but an Elamite origin has also been proposed.

Kudurru

boundary stonesboundary stonekudurru'', "boundary-stone
A connection to the star symbology of Kassite kudurru border stones has also been claimed, but whether such kudurrus really represented constellations and astronomical information aside from the use of the symbols remains unclear.

Zodiac

signs of the zodiactropical zodiaczodiacal signs
It lists, among others, 17 or 18 constellations in the zodiac.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
Later catalogues reduce the zodiacal set of constellations to 12, which were borrowed by the Egyptians and the Greeks, still surviving among the modern constellations.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
Later catalogues reduce the zodiacal set of constellations to 12, which were borrowed by the Egyptians and the Greeks, still surviving among the modern constellations.

IAU designated constellations

88 modern constellations88 constellationsmodern constellation
Later catalogues reduce the zodiacal set of constellations to 12, which were borrowed by the Egyptians and the Greeks, still surviving among the modern constellations.

Enlil

En-lil D EN.LÍL d Enlil
They represent a tripartite division of the heavens: the northern hemisphere belonged to Enlil, the equator belonged to Anu, and the southern hemisphere belonged to Enki.