Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensisBacilius thuringiensisBacillusBacillus thuringiensiBacillus thuringiensis tenebrionisBacillus thuringiensis toxinBacillus thuringiensis'' AIIBt cotton
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.wikipedia
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Insecticide

insecticidesinsecticidalsystemic
During sporulation, many Bt strains produce crystal proteins (proteinaceous inclusions), called δ-endotoxins, that have insecticidal action.
For instance, a gene that codes for a specific Bacillus thuringiensis biocidal protein was introduced into corn (maize) and other species.

Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis

Bt israelensisBtisubspecies ''israelensis
The subspecies israelensis is commonly used for control of mosquitoes and of fungus gnats.
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype israelensis (Bti) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents for larvae stages of certain dipterans.

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki

subspecies ''kurstaki
Subspecies commonly used as insecticides include Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (Btk), subspecies israelensis (Bti) and subspecies aizawa.
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype kurstaki (Btk) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents against lepidopterans.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
This has led to their use as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn. The Belgian company Plant Genetic Systems (now part of Bayer CropScience) was the first company (in 1985) to develop genetically modified crops (tobacco) with insect tolerance by expressing cry genes from B. thuringiensis; the resulting crops contain delta endotoxin.
In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

Bacillus cereus

B. cereusBacillus cereus'' B4Bacillus cereus'' infection
B. thuringiensis is closely related to B. cereus, a soil bacterium, and B. anthracis, the cause of anthrax; the three organisms differ mainly in their plasmids.
The Bacillus cereus group comprises seven closely related species: B. cereus sensu stricto (referred to herein as B. cereus), B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. cytotoxicus.

Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
This has led to their use as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn.
Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.

Bacillus anthracis

B. anthracisanthraxanthrax bacteria
B. thuringiensis is closely related to B. cereus, a soil bacterium, and B. anthracis, the cause of anthrax; the three organisms differ mainly in their plasmids.
It bears close genotypical and phenotypical resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

Parasporal body

parasporalparasporal crystals
The proteins of parasporin group are defined as B. thuringiensis and related bacterial parasporal proteins that are not hemolytic, but capable of preferentially killing cancer cells.
For example, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus form a solid protein crystal, the parasporal body, next to their endospores during spore formation.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
Thus, B. thuringiensis serves as an important reservoir of Cry toxins for production of biological insecticides and insect-resistant genetically modified crops.
In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US. Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato.

Delta endotoxin

cry proteinδ-endotoxinscry toxin
During sporulation, many Bt strains produce crystal proteins (proteinaceous inclusions), called δ-endotoxins, that have insecticidal action. The Belgian company Plant Genetic Systems (now part of Bayer CropScience) was the first company (in 1985) to develop genetically modified crops (tobacco) with insect tolerance by expressing cry genes from B. thuringiensis; the resulting crops contain delta endotoxin.
Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins, also called Cry and Cyt toxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria.

Caterpillar

caterpillarslarvaelarva
B. thuringiensis also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well on leaf surfaces, aquatic environments, animal feces, insect-rich environments, and flour mills and grain-storage facilities.
Bacterial toxins such as those from Bacillus thuringiensis which are evolved to affect the gut of Lepidoptera have been used in sprays of bacterial spores, toxin extracts and also by incorporating genes to produce them within the host plants.

Bt cotton

genetically modified cotton
In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found the pink bollworm had become resistant to the first-generation Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India - that generation expresses one Bt gene, Cry1Ac.
Strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce over 200 different Bt toxins, each harmful to different insects.

Butterfly

butterfliesbutterfly-likeadulthood
B. thuringiensis also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well on leaf surfaces, aquatic environments, animal feces, insect-rich environments, and flour mills and grain-storage facilities.
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been used in sprays to reduce damage to crops by the caterpillars of the large white butterfly, and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has proved effective for the same purpose.

Ernst Berliner

In 1911, German microbiologist Ernst Berliner independently rediscovered it when he isolated it as the cause of a disease called Schlaffsucht in flour moth caterpillars in Thuringia (hence the specific name thuringiensis, "Thuringian").
Here he studied an infectious disease of flour moth caterpillars, which he named Bacillus thuringiensis.

Cry1Ac

Cry1Ac
Cry1Ac protoxin is a crystal protein produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during sporulation.

Fungus gnat

fungus gnatssciarid
The subspecies israelensis is commonly used for control of mosquitoes and of fungus gnats.
The pests are sometimes also managed by placing a layer of sand or indoor mulch on top of the soil around plants; by introducing Hypoaspis miles mites or applying the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis (var.

Cry3Bb1

The Bt genes engineered into crops and approved for release include, singly and stacked: Cry1A.105, CryIAb, CryIF, Cry2Ab, Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1, mCry3A, and VIP, and the engineered crops include corn and cotton.
Cry3Bb1 is a protein toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis.

Pink bollworm

In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found the pink bollworm had become resistant to the first-generation Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India - that generation expresses one Bt gene, Cry1Ac.
In parts of India, the pink bollworm is now resistant to first generation transgenic Bt cotton (Bollgard cotton) that expresses a single Bt gene (Cry1Ac).

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT), a gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium.

Pesticide resistance

insecticide resistanceresistanceherbicide resistance
In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found the pink bollworm had become resistant to the first-generation Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India - that generation expresses one Bt gene, Cry1Ac.
With the introduction of every new insecticide class – cyclodienes, carbamates, formamidines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, even Bacillus thuringiensis – cases of resistance surfaced within two to 20 years.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found the pink bollworm had become resistant to the first-generation Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India - that generation expresses one Bt gene, Cry1Ac. Monsanto developed a soybean expressing Cry1Ac and the glyphosate-resistance gene for the Brazilian market, which completed the Brazilian regulatory process in 2010.
Monsanto invented and sells genetically modified seeds that make a crystalline insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, known as Bt. In 1995 Monsanto's potato plants producing Bt toxin were approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, following approval by the FDA, making it the first pesticide-producing crop to be approved in the United States.

Organic farming

organicorganic agricultureorganic farm
Because of their specificity, these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly, with little or no effect on humans, wildlife, pollinators, and most other beneficial insects, and are used in organic farming; however, the manuals for these products do contain many environmental and human health warnings, and a 2012 European regulatory peer review of five approved strains found, while data exist to support some claims of low toxicity to humans and the environment, the data are insufficient to justify many of these claims.
Naturally derived insecticides allowed for use on organic farms use include Bacillus thuringiensis (a bacterial toxin), pyrethrum (a chrysanthemum extract), spinosad (a bacterial metabolite), neem (a tree extract) and rotenone (a legume root extract).

Biopesticide

biological pesticidebiopesticidesbiological insecticide
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterial disease of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera, is a well-known insecticide example.

Cadra calidella

It has also been observed to parasitize other moths such as Cadra calidella—in laboratory experiments working with C. calidella, many of the moths were diseased due to this parasite.
While there are limited resources on the predation of Cadra calidella, laboratory experiments will often encounter diseased moths due to parasitism by Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner).

Plant Genetic Systems

The Belgian company Plant Genetic Systems (now part of Bayer CropScience) was the first company (in 1985) to develop genetically modified crops (tobacco) with insect tolerance by expressing cry genes from B. thuringiensis; the resulting crops contain delta endotoxin.
PGS was the first company (in 1985) to develop genetically engineered (tobacco) plants with insect tolerance by expressing genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).