Backup

data backupback upbacked upbackupsbacking upback-upbackup and recoveryfull backupbackup copiessafety
In information technology, a backup, or data backup is a copy of computer data taken and stored elsewhere so that it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.wikipedia
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Data loss

information losserrorsfile system corruption
In information technology, a backup, or data backup is a copy of computer data taken and stored elsewhere so that it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
Information systems implement backup and disaster recovery equipment and processes to prevent data loss or restore lost data.

Enterprise client-server backup

client–server backupinteractive
Additional techniques apply to enterprise client-server backup.
Enterprise client-server" backup software describes a class of software applications that back up data from a variety of client computers centrally to one or more server computers, with the particular needs of enterprises in mind. They may employ a scripted client–server backup model with a backup server program running on one computer, and with small-footprint client programs (referred to as "agents" in some applications) running on the other computer(s) being backed up—or alternatively as another process on the same computer as the backup server program. Enterprise-specific requirements include the need to back up large amounts of data on a systematic basis, to adhere to legal requirements for the maintenance and archiving of files and data, and to satisfy short-recovery-time objectives. To satisfy these requirements (which World Backup Day (31 March) highlights), it is typical for an enterprise to appoint a backup administrator—who is a part of office administration rather than of the IT staff and whose role is "being the keeper of the data".

Continuous Data Protection

CDPcontinuously maintained
Continuous Data Protection (CDP) refers to a backup that instantly saves a copy of every change made to the data.
Continuous data protection (CDP), also called continuous backup or real-time backup, refers to backup of computer data by automatically saving a copy of every change made to that data, essentially capturing every version of the data that the user saves.

List of backup software

Managed backup photos provimarketedsoftware
Near-CDP backup applications—often marketed as "CDP"—automatically take incremental backups at a specific interval, for example every 15 minutes, one hour, or 24 hours.
This is a list of notable backup software that performs data backups.

Backup rotation scheme

Grandfather-Father-Son Backupgrandfather-father-son backup proceduresGrandfather-Father-Son
The backup data needs to be stored, requiring a backup rotation scheme, which is a system of backing up data to computer media that limits the number of backups of different dates retained separately, by appropriate re-use of the data storage media by overwriting of backups no longer needed.
A backup rotation scheme is a system of backing up data to computer media (such as tapes) that minimizes, by re-use, the number of media used.

System image

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Copying system images, this method is frequently used by computer technicians to record known good configurations.
In such cases, system images can be used for backup.

Data security

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There are also different ways these devices can be arranged to provide geographic dispersion, data security, and portability.
Backups are used to ensure data which is lost can be recovered from another source.

Differential backup

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A differential backup saves only the data that has changed since the last full backup.
A differential backup is a type of data backup that preserves data, saving only the difference in the data since the last full backup.

File deletion

deletedeleteddata deletion
Backups can be used to recover data after its loss from data deletion or corruption, or to recover data from an earlier time.
One way to deal with this is to back up files regularly.

Linear Tape-Open

LTOLTO-3LTO-6
By 2014 LTO had become the primary tape technology.
LTO is widely used with small and large computer systems, especially for backup.

Data corruption

corruptedcorruptionsilent data corruption
Backups can be used to recover data after its loss from data deletion or corruption, or to recover data from an earlier time.
If an uncorrectable data corruption is detected, procedures such as automatic retransmission or restoration from backups can be applied.

Data deduplication

deduplicationde-duplicationdata de-duplication
The process can include methods for dealing with live data, including open files, as well as compression, encryption, and de-duplication.
SIS is frequently implemented in file systems, e-mail server software, data backup and other storage-related computer software.

Remote backup service

online backupOnline backup servicecloud backup
Remote backup services or cloud backups involve service providers storing data offsite.
A remote, online, or managed backup service, sometimes marketed as cloud backup or backup-as-a-service, is a service that provides users with a system for the backup, storage, and recovery of computer files.

Magnetic tape data storage

magnetic tapetapeCassette
Magnetic tape was for a long time the most commonly used medium for bulk data storage, backup, archiving, and interchange.
File archiver and backup tools have been created to pack multiple files along with the related metadata into a single 'tape file'.

Solid-state drive

SSDsolid state drivesolid-state drives
Solid-state drives (SSDs) use integrated circuit assemblies to store data.
DRAM-based SSDs usually incorporate either an internal battery or an external AC/DC adapter and backup storage systems to ensure data persistence while no power is being supplied to the drive from external sources.

Storage area network

SANstorage area networksSANs
An internal hard disk or a disk array (maybe connected to SAN) is an example of an online backup.
In addition to storing data, SANs allow for the automatic backup of data, and the monitoring of the storage as well as the backup process.

File comparison

data comparisondiffscomparison
This can either be done using hard links—as Apple Time Machine does, or using binary diffs.
File comparison is an important, and most likely integral, part of file synchronization and backup.

Snapshot (computer storage)

snapshotssnapshotsnapshotting
A snapshot is an instantaneous function of some filesystems that presents a copy of the filesystem as if it were frozen at a specific point in time, often by a copy-on-write mechanism.
A full backup of a large data set may take a long time to complete.

Disk image

disc imageVirtual disk imagedisk imaging
Disk images were originally (in the late 1960s) used for backup and disk cloning of mainframe disk media.

Versioning file system

unlimited versioningversioning filesystemdocument versioning

USB flash drive

flash driveUSB flash drivesUSB drive
Flash memory, thumb drives, USB flash drives, CompactFlash, SmartMedia, Memory Sticks, and Secure Digital card devices are relatively expensive for their low capacity, but convenient for backing up relatively low data volumes.
The drive is used as a backup medium: at the close of business each night, the drive is inserted, and a database backup is saved to the drive.

Archive bit

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It is used to indicate whether or not the file has been backed up (archived).

Tape library

tape librariesautoloaderautoloaders
Using on-line disks for staging data before it is sent to a near-line tape library is a common example.
Because of their slow sequential access and huge capacity, tape libraries are primarily used for backups and as the final stage of digital archiving.

Hard disk drive failure

hard disk failureadaptation datadisk failure
In the mid-2000s, several drive manufacturers began to produce portable drives employing ramp loading and accelerometer technology (sometimes termed a "shock sensor"), and by 2010 the industry average in drop tests for drives with that technology showed drives remaining intact and working after a 36-inch non-operating drop onto industrial carpeting.

Replication (computing)

replicationdata replicationreplicated
Sometimes backups are duplicated to a second set of storage media.
Backup differs from replication in that the saved copy of data remains unchanged for a long period of time.