Bacterial cell structure

cell wallbacterial cell wallBacterial cellsbacterial cell wallsBacterial morphologycell shapecell wall componentscell wallscytoplasmic membranegas vesicle
The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity.wikipedia
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Gram-positive bacteria

gram-positivegram positivegram-positive bacterium
There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics.
Along with cell shape, Gram staining is a rapid method used to differentiate bacterial species.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
Perhaps the most elemental structural property of bacteria is their morphology (shape). Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages (e.g. Caulobacter) and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores (e.g. Myxococcus, Streptomyces). Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates.
Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Gram stain

GramGram-negativeGram-positive
There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics.
*Bacterial cell structure

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Bacterial cell structure

Bacterial capsule

capsulecapsulesencapsulated
Capsules are relatively impermeable structures that cannot be stained with dyes such as India ink.
Bacterial cell structure

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

Biology

biologicalbiologistbiological sciences
The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
Many structural features are unique to bacteria and are not found among archaea or eukaryotes.

Eukaryote

eukaryoticeukaryotesEukaryota
Many structural features are unique to bacteria and are not found among archaea or eukaryotes.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms.

Bacterial cellular morphologies

morphologyrodcell shape
Perhaps the most elemental structural property of bacteria is their morphology (shape).

Caulobacter crescentus

C. crescentusCaulobacterCaulobacter crescentus'' CB-13
Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages (e.g. Caulobacter) and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores (e.g. Myxococcus, Streptomyces). Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates.

Myxococcus

Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages (e.g. Caulobacter) and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores (e.g. Myxococcus, Streptomyces). Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates.

Streptomyces

streptomycetesStreptomyces griseusStreptomyces lividans
Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages (e.g. Caulobacter) and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores (e.g. Myxococcus, Streptomyces). Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates.

Microscopy

light microscopymicroscopistmicroscopic
Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages (e.g. Caulobacter) and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores (e.g. Myxococcus, Streptomyces). Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates.

Petri dish

petri dishesPetri plateplates
Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages (e.g. Caulobacter) and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores (e.g. Myxococcus, Streptomyces). Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm 3 . This corresponds to a wet mass of about 1 picogram (pg), assuming that the cell consists mostly of water. Therefore, a typical fully grown 1-liter culture of Escherichia coli (at an optical density of 1.0, corresponding to c. 10 9 cells/ml) yields about 1 g wet cell mass. Small size is extremely important because it allows for a large surface area-to-volume ratio which allows for rapid uptake and intracellular distribution of nutrients and excretion of wastes.

Micrometre

µmμmmicrometers
For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm 3 . This corresponds to a wet mass of about 1 picogram (pg), assuming that the cell consists mostly of water.

Orders of magnitude (mass)

picogrampgattogram
For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm 3 . This corresponds to a wet mass of about 1 picogram (pg), assuming that the cell consists mostly of water.

Surface-area-to-volume ratio

surface area to volume ratiosurface-to-volume ratiosurface area-to-volume ratio
Therefore, a typical fully grown 1-liter culture of Escherichia coli (at an optical density of 1.0, corresponding to c. 10 9 cells/ml) yields about 1 g wet cell mass. Small size is extremely important because it allows for a large surface area-to-volume ratio which allows for rapid uptake and intracellular distribution of nutrients and excretion of wastes.

Coccus

Bacillus (shape)

rod-shapedrodsbacillus
bacillus (rod-like)

Coccobacillus

coccobacillicoccobacillary
coccobacillus (between a sphere and a rod)

Spiral bacteria

spiralspirillaespirillum
spiral (corkscrew-like)

Filamentation

filamentousfilamentsfilament
filamentous (elongated)