Bacterial cell structure

bacterial cellscell wallbacterial cell wallbacterial cell wallsBacterial morphologycell shapecell wall componentscell wallscytoplasmic membranedifferent shapes
The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity.wikipedia
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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positiveGram positivegram-positive bacterium
There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics.
Along with cell shape, Gram staining is a rapid method used to differentiate bacterial species.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Perhaps the most obvious structural characteristic of bacteria is (with some exceptions) their small size. While the ribosome is the most commonly observed intracellular multiprotein complex in bacteria other large complexes do occur and can sometimes be seen using microscopy.
Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Penicillin

penicillinspenicillin Gpenicillin allergy
Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in some eukaryotes, several antibiotics (notably the penicillins and cephalosporins) stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall, only a cell membrane.
Penicillin inhibits activity of enzymes that are needed for the cross linking of peptidoglycans in bacterial cell walls, which is the final step in cell wall biosynthesis.

Gram stain

Gram stainingGram-variableGram
There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane.

Bacterial capsule

capsulecapsulesPolysaccharide encapsulated bacteria
Capsules are relatively impermeable structures that cannot be stained with dyes such as India ink.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
Many structural features are unique to bacteria and are not found among archaea or eukaryotes.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in some eukaryotes, several antibiotics (notably the penicillins and cephalosporins) stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall, only a cell membrane. Many structural features are unique to bacteria and are not found among archaea or eukaryotes.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms.

Myxococcus

A few organisms (e.g. Myxococcus) use fimbriae for motility to facilitate the assembly of multicellular structures such as fruiting bodies.

Microscopy

light microscopymicroscopistmicroscopic
While the ribosome is the most commonly observed intracellular multiprotein complex in bacteria other large complexes do occur and can sometimes be seen using microscopy.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm 3. Therefore, a typical fully grown 1-liter culture of Escherichia coli (at an optical density of 1.0, corresponding to c. 10 9 cells/ml) yields about 1 g wet cell mass. Small size is extremely important because it allows for a large surface area-to-volume ratio which allows for rapid uptake and intracellular distribution of nutrients and excretion of wastes.

Micrometre

μmµmmicrometers
For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm 3.

Orders of magnitude (mass)

picogrampgattogram
This corresponds to a wet mass of about 1 picogram (pg), assuming that the cell consists mostly of water.

Surface-area-to-volume ratio

surface area to volume ratiosurface-to-volume ratiosurface area-to-volume ratio
Therefore, a typical fully grown 1-liter culture of Escherichia coli (at an optical density of 1.0, corresponding to c. 10 9 cells/ml) yields about 1 g wet cell mass. Small size is extremely important because it allows for a large surface area-to-volume ratio which allows for rapid uptake and intracellular distribution of nutrients and excretion of wastes.