Bacterial phyla

candidate phylum of bacteriaAC1bacterial cell divisionCPR2CPR3major bacterial lineageNC10OS-K groupphylum of bacteriaSC3
The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria.wikipedia
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Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria.
Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

Bacterial taxonomy

Trivialisation of namesHistoricallyTaxonomic Outline of Bacteria and Archaea
In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" is disused at present in bacterial taxonomy.
Phylogeny: All bacteria stem from a common ancestor and diversified since, and consequently possess different levels of evolutionary relatedness (see Bacterial phyla and Timeline of evolution)

Chloroflexi (phylum)

Chloroflexigreengreen non-sulfur bacteria
Green non-sulfur bacteria and relatives (later renamed Chloroflexi )
Bacterial phyla) its classification was analysed in Volume One of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and included a single class with the same name, the class Chloroflexi.

Gram-positive bacteria

gram-positivegram positivegram-positive bacterium
Gram-positive Eubacteria
Based on molecular studies of the 16S sequences, Woese recognised twelve bacterial phyla.

Three-domain system

three domainsdomainsthree domains of life
Currently, the most accepted mega-classification system is under the three-domain system, which is based on molecular phylogeny.
Bacterial phyla

Cyanobacteria

cyanobacteriumblue-green algaeblue green algae
When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial nomenclature (with the exception of cyanobacteria) is controlled under the Bacteriological Code, the term phylum is preferred.
Bacterial phyla, other major lineages of Bacteria

Carl Woese

WoeseCarl R. Woeseoutdated
The lack of easily accessible morphological features, such as those present in animals and plants, hampered early efforts of classification and resulted in erroneous, distorted and confused classification, an example of which, noted Carl Woese, is Pseudomonas whose etymology ironically matched its taxonomy, namely "false unit".
Bacterial phyla, the major lineages of Bacteria

Candidate division TM7

Candidate phylum TM7TM7
TM6 and TM7 (Torf, Mittlere Schicht lit. "peat, middle layer")
The majority of bacterial phyla are Gram-negative diderms, whereas only the Firmicutes, the Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi are [[Gram-positive bacteria#Importance of the outer cell membrane in bacterial classification|monoderm]]s.

Planctobacteria

PVC groupPVC group/Planctobacteria
The PVC group (now called Planctobacteria) includes Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, candidate phylum Omnitrophica, Planctomycetes, candidate phylum Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia.
These three groups in the traditional molecular phylogeny view are considered as phyla and also cluster together in what is referred to as the PVC superphylum, along with the candidate phyla OP3 and the Poribacteria.

Phylum

phyladivisiondivisions
The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria.

Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Linnaeus C
In the scientific classification established by Carl von Linné, each bacterial strain has to be assigned to a species (binary nomenclature), which is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks.

Binomial nomenclature

scientific namebinomial namebinomial authority
In the scientific classification established by Carl von Linné, each bacterial strain has to be assigned to a species (binary nomenclature), which is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks.

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

ICNrules of botanical nomenclatureInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature
When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial nomenclature (with the exception of cyanobacteria) is controlled under the Bacteriological Code, the term phylum is preferred.

International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes

Bacteriological Codebacteriological nomenclatureICNB
When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial nomenclature (with the exception of cyanobacteria) is controlled under the Bacteriological Code, the term phylum is preferred.

Microbiological culture

culturepure culturecultured
In this classification scheme, Bacteria is (unofficially) subdivided into 30 phyla with representatives cultured in a lab.

Clade

cladesgroupcladistic
Many major clades of bacteria that cannot currently be cultured are known solely and somewhat indirectly through metagenomics, the analysis of bulk samples from the environment.

Metagenomics

metagenomicmetagenomemetagenomes
Many major clades of bacteria that cannot currently be cultured are known solely and somewhat indirectly through metagenomics, the analysis of bulk samples from the environment.

Last universal common ancestor

last universal ancestora single common ancestorprogenote
At the base of the clade Bacteria, close to the last universal common ancestor of all living things, some scientists believe there may be a definite branching order, whereas other scientists, such as Norman Pace, believe there was a large hard polytomy, a simultaneous multiple speciation event.

Polytomy

polytomouspolytomiespentatomy
At the base of the clade Bacteria, close to the last universal common ancestor of all living things, some scientists believe there may be a definite branching order, whereas other scientists, such as Norman Pace, believe there was a large hard polytomy, a simultaneous multiple speciation event.

Speciation

divergedspeciatedtrichotomy
At the base of the clade Bacteria, close to the last universal common ancestor of all living things, some scientists believe there may be a definite branching order, whereas other scientists, such as Norman Pace, believe there was a large hard polytomy, a simultaneous multiple speciation event.

Phylogenetic tree

phylogenyphylogeneticevolutionary tree
Traditionally, phylogeny was inferred and taxonomy established based on studies of morphology.

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
In the scientific classification established by Carl von Linné, each bacterial strain has to be assigned to a species (binary nomenclature), which is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks. Traditionally, phylogeny was inferred and taxonomy established based on studies of morphology.

Molecular phylogenetics

molecular phylogeneticmolecularmolecular phylogeny
Currently, the most accepted mega-classification system is under the three-domain system, which is based on molecular phylogeny. Recently molecular phylogenetics has been used to allow better elucidation of the evolutionary relationship of species by analysing their DNA and protein sequences, for example their ribosomal DNA.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Recently molecular phylogenetics has been used to allow better elucidation of the evolutionary relationship of species by analysing their DNA and protein sequences, for example their ribosomal DNA.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Recently molecular phylogenetics has been used to allow better elucidation of the evolutionary relationship of species by analysing their DNA and protein sequences, for example their ribosomal DNA.