Bad breath

halitosisfoul breathbad breath (halitosis)bad breath odorsblood borne halitosisDiagnosis of bad breathfoul odorHalitosis (bad breath)mouth odorsoffensive odors
Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant breath odour is present.wikipedia
261 Related Articles

Mouthwash

mouthwashesmouth rinsemouth wash
Initial efforts may include tongue cleaning, mouthwash, and flossing. Bad breath may be transient, often disappearing following eating, drinking, tooth brushing, flossing, or rinsing with specialized mouthwash.
Some manufacturers of mouthwash state that antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse kill the bacterial plaque that causes cavities, gingivitis, and bad breath.

Cetylpyridinium chloride

Cetylpyridiniumcetyl pyridinium chloride
Tentative evidence supports the use of mouthwash containing chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride.
In combination with chlorhexidine and zinc lactate, CPC has been found to be effective in treating halitosis.

Periodontal disease

periodontitisgum diseaseperiodontal diseases
Treating underlying disease such as gum disease, tooth decay, or gastroesophageal reflux disease may help.
Bad breath may also occur.

Gingivitis

gingival inflammationgum diseasebleeding
Gingival crevices are the small grooves between teeth and gums, and they are present in health, although they may become inflamed when gingivitis is present.

Dental floss

flossingflossdental hygiene aids
Initial efforts may include tongue cleaning, mouthwash, and flossing. Bad breath may be transient, often disappearing following eating, drinking, tooth brushing, flossing, or rinsing with specialized mouthwash.
The American Dental Association has stated that flossing in combination with tooth brushing can help prevent gum disease and halitosis.

Methanethiol

methyl mercaptanmethylmercaptanHSCH 3
When left on the tongue, the anaerobic respiration of such bacteria can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, polyamines, or the "rotten egg" smell of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, and dimethyl sulfide.
It is one of the main compounds responsible for bad breath and the smell of flatus.

Tonsillolith

tonsil stonesTonsillolithstonsilolith
Conditions of the tonsils which may be associated with halitosis include chronic caseous tonsillitis (cheese-like material can be exuded from the tonsillar crypt orifi), tonsillolithiasis (tonsil stones), and less commonly peritonsillar abscess, actinomycosis, fungating malignancies, chondroid choristoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
They are one of the causes of bad breath and give off a putrid smell.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

acid refluxgastroesophageal refluxGERD
Treating underlying disease such as gum disease, tooth decay, or gastroesophageal reflux disease may help. The esophagus is a closed and collapsed tube, and continuous flow of gas or putrid substances from the stomach indicates a health problem—such as reflux serious enough to be bringing up stomach contents or a fistula between the stomach and the esophagus—which will demonstrate more serious manifestations than just foul odor.
Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth.

Sinusitis

sinus infectionrhinosinusitischronic sinusitis
Nasal odor may be due to sinus infections or foreign bodies.
Halitosis (bad breath) is often stated to be a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis; however, gold-standard breath analysis techniques have not been applied.

Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SStink damp
When left on the tongue, the anaerobic respiration of such bacteria can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, polyamines, or the "rotten egg" smell of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, and dimethyl sulfide.
It is also produced in the mouth (halitosis).

Dimethyl sulfide

dimethylsulfideDMSMethyl Sulfide
When left on the tongue, the anaerobic respiration of such bacteria can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, polyamines, or the "rotten egg" smell of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, and dimethyl sulfide.
This condition is associated with blood borne halitosis and dimethylsulfiduria.

Peritonsillar abscess

quinsyperitonsillar spacequinsey
Conditions of the tonsils which may be associated with halitosis include chronic caseous tonsillitis (cheese-like material can be exuded from the tonsillar crypt orifi), tonsillolithiasis (tonsil stones), and less commonly peritonsillar abscess, actinomycosis, fungating malignancies, chondroid choristoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
Neck pain associated with tender, swollen lymph nodes, referred ear pain and foul breath are also common.

Tonsillitis

tonsilitisVincent's anginaChronic tonsillitis
Conditions of the tonsils which may be associated with halitosis include chronic caseous tonsillitis (cheese-like material can be exuded from the tonsillar crypt orifi), tonsillolithiasis (tonsil stones), and less commonly peritonsillar abscess, actinomycosis, fungating malignancies, chondroid choristoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

Tongue

Glossusforamen cecumblade
The most common location for mouth-related halitosis is the tongue.
This coating has been identified as a major factor contributing to bad breath (halitosis), which can be managed by using a tongue cleaner.

Garlic

Allium sativumgarlic clovesGarlic Production
The intensity of bad breath may differ during the day, due to eating certain foods (such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, and cheese), smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Garlic is known to cause bad breath (halitosis) and body odor, described as a pungent "garlicky" smell to sweat.

Halimeter

Halimeter was introduced in the early 1990s as an adjunct method for determining halitosis (bad breath, oral malodor) levels, alongside human assessment of odor levels (the latter is considered the gold standard).

Fistula

fistulaefistulasfistulation
The esophagus is a closed and collapsed tube, and continuous flow of gas or putrid substances from the stomach indicates a health problem—such as reflux serious enough to be bringing up stomach contents or a fistula between the stomach and the esophagus—which will demonstrate more serious manifestations than just foul odor.

Olfactory reference syndrome

Bromidrosiphobia
One quarter of the people seeking professional advice on bad breath have an exaggerated concern of having bad breath, known as halitophobia, delusional halitosis, or as a manifestation of olfactory reference syndrome.
The individual may report that the odor comes from: the nose and/or mouth, i.e. halitosis (bad breath); the anus; the genitals; the skin generally; or specifically the groin, armpits or feet.

Tongue cleaner

tongue cleaningtongue scraping
Initial efforts may include tongue cleaning, mouthwash, and flossing.
While there is tentative benefit from the use of a tongue cleaner it is insufficient to draw clear conclusions regarding bad breath.

Tooth brushing

brushingbrushing his teethbrushing teeth
Bad breath may be transient, often disappearing following eating, drinking, tooth brushing, flossing, or rinsing with specialized mouthwash.
Toothpaste use can promote good oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth, it can aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis when tonsil stones are not the cause, and it can deliver active ingredients such as fluoride to prevent tooth and gum (gingiva) disease.

Tongue disease

Osseous choristoma of the tonguecoatingwhite tongue
A visible white tongue coating does not always equal the back of the tongue as an origin of halitosis, however a "white tongue" is thought to be a sign of halitosis.

BANA test

The BANA test (referring to the enzymatic breakdown of [N-benzoyl-dL-arginine-2-napthylamide]) is used to determine the proteolytic activity of certain oral anaerobes that contribute to oral malodor.

Tonsillar crypts

tonsillar crypt orifi
Conditions of the tonsils which may be associated with halitosis include chronic caseous tonsillitis (cheese-like material can be exuded from the tonsillar crypt orifi), tonsillolithiasis (tonsil stones), and less commonly peritonsillar abscess, actinomycosis, fungating malignancies, chondroid choristoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
These small whitish plugs, termed "tonsilloliths" and sometimes known as "tonsil stones," have a foul smell and can contribute to bad breath; furthermore, they can obstruct the normal flow of pus from the crypts, and may irritate the throat (people with tonsil stones may complain of the feeling that something is stuck in their throat).

Saliva

salivationspittlespit
One popular home method to determine the presence of bad breath is to lick the back of the wrist, let the saliva dry for a minute or two, and smell the result.