A report on Baghdad

An 1808 picture of Baghdad from the print collection in Travels in Asia and Africa, etc. (ed. J. P. Berjew, British Library)
An 1468 painting of Floods in Baghdad by Shirwan
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 AD
Baghdad Museum is a local history museum. It features 70 scenes from different periods using lifesize models presenting Baghdad life
Courtyard of Mustansiriya madrasa, established by Al-Mustansir in 1227
Khan Murjan, built in the 14th century as a caravanserai
Al Khulafa mosque retains an Abbasid-era minaret
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD)
Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 CE
Central Asian Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur sacked the city and spared almost no one
The Shabandar Café in Baghdad, 1923
Manadotory Iraq, 1921
Three Iraqi Levies, who volunteered in 1946 for service as ground crew with the Royal Air Force, look over the side of the ORBITA as it pulls into the docks at Liverpool. Left to right, they are: Sergeant Macko Shmos, Lance Corporal Adoniyo Odisho and Corporal Yoseph Odisho.
Freedom Monument, Tahrir square in Downtown Baghdad
View of downtown Baghdad, March 2017
Baghdad as seen from the International Space Station
Al-Ma'mun's Telecommunication Center in downtown Baghdad
The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra performing in July 2007
The National Ballet performing in 2007
Chaldean Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows
The Baghdad Convention Center
Qushla Square
Madina Stadium
Al-Shaab Stadium
Baghdad Eyalet in 1609 CE.
Baghdad Vilayet in 1900 CE.
Souk in Baghdad, 1876 CE.
Kadhimiya Mosque
Armenian Orthodox Church of Baghdad
Saray Mosque
Khilani Mosque
Baghdadi Museum
Iraq National Museum
Al Zawra'a Park
Al Salam Palace
Al Faw Palace
Abu Nawas Street

Capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.

- Baghdad

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inside the Shanidar Cave, where the remains of eight adults and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago were found.
Map of the Akkadian Empire and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows). The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
Hammurabi, depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Jehu, king of Israel, bows before Shalmaneser III of Assyria, 825 BC.
Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus (r. 626–539 BC)
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Roman amphitheater in Sulaymaniyah.
Al-Hariri of Basra was a poet, high government official and scholar of the Arabic language, He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri (‘'Assemblies of Hariri'’), a collection of some 50 stories written in the Maqama style. Al-Hariri's best known work, Maqamat has been regarded as the greatest treasure in Arabic literature.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
Crowning of King Faisal II of Iraq in the Council of Representatives, 1953
Nuri Said (1888 - 1958), contributed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq and the armed forces while also served as the Prime minister of the state.
Iraq state emblem under nationalist Qasim was mostly based on Mesopotamian symbol of Shamash, and avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue by US Army troops in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the US-led invasion.
Destroyed Lion of Babylon tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf during US-led invasion in 2003.
An Iraqi Army Aviation Command aerial gunner prepares to test fire his M240 machine gun, Near Baghdad International Airport, 2011
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq and Syria.
Pro-independence rally in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2017. The Kurdistan Regional Government announced it would respect the Supreme Federal Court's ruling that no Iraqi province is allowed to secede.
Protest in Baghdad in November 2019. The protests were the largest incident of civil unrest Iraq has experienced since the 2003 invasion.
Cheekha Dar, highest point in Iraq.
Iraq Köppen climate classification map.
The Asiatic lion has remained a prominent symbol of the country throughout history.
Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
View over Green Zone, which contains governmental headquarters and the army, in addition to containing the headquarters of the American embassy and the headquarters of foreign organizations and agencies for other countries.
US President Donald Trump with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in 2017.
Administrative districts of Iraq
Historical GDP per capita development
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. It contains ancient Mesopotamian artifacts.
Supertankers at the Basra Oil Terminal
Mosul Dam Lake
Lake Dukan
Children in a village in Sulaymaniyah.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Saddam Hussein Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
University students in Iraq, 2016
Al-Mutanabi, regarded as one of the greatest, most prominent and influential poets in the Arabic language, much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide
Wasiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the modern Baghdad art movement in the 20th-century.
Zaha Hadid (1950–2016), an acclaimed architect.
Facade of Temple at Hatra, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Masgouf, a popular Iraqi dish.
Madina Stadium in Baghdad is Iraq's first-ever stadium solar power plant, and the second in the Middle East of its kind.
Iraq wall det 2003.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Sunni Arabs
Shiite Arabs
Sunni Kurds

The capital and largest city is Baghdad.

Abbasid Caliphate

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The third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

The third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Folio from the Tarikhnama of Bal'ami depicting al-Saffah (r. 750–754) as he receives pledges of allegiance in Kufa
The city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 CE.
Battle of Talas, 751
Map of Abbasid Caliphate and its provinces c 788 (2nd century Hijri)
Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809) receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne at his court in Baghdad. Painting by German painter (1827–1918), dated 1864. Oil on canvas.
Gold dinar minted during the reign of al-Amin (809–813)
Map of Abbasid empire and other world empires in 9th century
Map of the fragmented Abbasid empire, with areas still under direct control of the Abbasid central government (dark green) and under autonomous rulers (light green) adhering to nominal Abbasid suzerainty, c. 892
Southwest Asia – c. 970 A.D
Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, 1244
Siege of Baghdad by the Mongols led by Hulagu Khan in 1258
Manuscript from the Abbasid era
Jabir ibn Hayyan, a pioneer in organic chemistry.
Ibn al-Haytham, "the father of Optics.
Baraka Palace in Samarra
Illustration from More tales from the Arabian nights (1915)
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb (1200 CE), in cemetery at Baghdad
9th-century harem wall painting fragments found in Samarra
Bowl with Kufic Inscription, 9th century, Brooklyn Museum
Qasr al-'Ashiq palace in Samarra, constructed during 877–882. Emir 'Amad al-Dawla wrote a poem about this palace. During the medieval period, it was referred to as "al-Ma'shuq (المعشوق)" which means "beloved".
Illustration showing a water clock given to Charlemagne by Harun al-Rashid
Windmills were among Abbasid inventions in technology.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq was an influential translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
Ukhaidir Fortress, located south of Karbala, is a large, rectangular fortress erected in 775 AD with a unique defensive style.
The provinces of Abbasid Caliphate in c. 850 under al-Mutawakkil
The Madrasa of Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, established in 1227, one of the only Abbasid-era madrasas remaining today

The Abbasid Caliphate first centered its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Babylonian capital city of Babylon.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, 1237

House of Wisdom

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Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, 1237
The earliest scientific manuscripts originated in the Abbasid era
Physicians employing a surgical method. From Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery (1465)
Al-Ma'mun sends an envoy to the Byzantine emperor Theophilos
Hulagu Khan's siege of Baghdad (1258)
13th-century Arabic translation of De Materia Medica.
A page from al-Khwarizmi's Kitab al-Jabr.
Drawing of Self trimming lamp in Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir's treatise on mechanical devices.
Al-Idrisi's map of the world (12th). Note South is on top.

The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة), also known as the Grand Library of Baghdad, refers to either a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

Left to right from top row: Al-Zahrawi, Abbas ibn Firnas, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Averroes, Ibn al-Nafis, ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Alhazen, Ibn Khaldun

Islamic Golden Age

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Period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.

Period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.

Left to right from top row: Al-Zahrawi, Abbas ibn Firnas, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Averroes, Ibn al-Nafis, ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Alhazen, Ibn Khaldun
Scholars at an Abbasid library, from the Maqamat of al-Hariri by Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.
Improvements to the astrolabe were one scientific achievement of the Golden Age.
The Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq led the House of Wisdom.
A manuscript written on paper during the Abbasid Era.
Organized instruction in the Cairo Al-Azhar Mosque began in 978
An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils
Geometric patterns: an archway in the Sultan's lodge in the Ottoman Green Mosque in Bursa, Turkey (1424), its girih strapwork forming 10-point stars and pentagons
Tusi couple
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq. From a manuscript dated circa 1200.
Entrance to the Qalawun complex which housed the notable Mansuri hospital in Cairo
Introductory summary overview map from al-Idrisi's 1154 world atlas (note that South is at the top of the map).
The diffusion of sugarcane from the Indian subcontinent to Spain during Islamic rule.
Marquetry and tile-top table, 1560
Drawing of a lute by Safi al-Din from a 1333 copy of his book, Kitab al-Adwār. The oldest copy dates to 1296.
Trade routes inherited by the Muslim civilization were ruined by invading Mongols, which according to Ibn Khaldun ruined economies
Expansion of the Caliphates, 622–750.
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
Astrolabe with Quranic inscriptions from Iran, dated 1060 AH (1650-51 AD)

This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, the world's largest city by then, where Muslim scholars and polymaths from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the known world's classical knowledge into Aramaic and Arabic.

Gen. Anthony C. Zinni briefs reporters at The Pentagon following Operation Desert Fox, 21 December 1998

2003 invasion of Iraq

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The first stage of the Iraq War.

The first stage of the Iraq War.

Gen. Anthony C. Zinni briefs reporters at The Pentagon following Operation Desert Fox, 21 December 1998
A UN weapons inspector in Iraq, 2002.
Two US F-16 Fighting Falcons prepare to depart Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia for a patrol as part of Operation Southern Watch, 2000.
George W. Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations on 12 September 2002 to outline the complaints of the United States government against the Iraqi government.
From left: French President Jacques Chirac, US President George W. Bush, British Prime Minister Tony Blair and Italian Prime minister Silvio Berlusconi at the G8 Summit at Evian, France. Chirac opposed the invasion; the other three leaders supported it.
Anti war protest in London, 2002
60,000–200,000 protesters of various ages demonstrated in San Francisco, 15 February 2003
José Manuel Durão Barroso, Tony Blair, George W. Bush and José María Aznar on 16 March 2003
U.S. President George W. Bush meets with his top advisors on 19 March 2003 just before the invasion
Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving presentation to the United Nations Security Council on 5 February 2003 (still photograph captured from video clip, The White House/CNN)
President George Bush, surrounded by leaders of the House and Senate, announces the Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq, 2 October 2002.
President George W. Bush addresses the nation from the Oval Office, 19 March 2003, to announce the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Tony Blair (left) and George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003, during the build-up to the invasion of Iraq
Kurdish areas in Northern Iraq
US Marine M1A1 tank is off-loaded from a US Navy LCAC in Kuwait in February 2003
T-72 Lion of Babylon (Asad Babil)
US invasion: 20–28 March 2003
US invasion: 29 March – 7 April 2003
Routes and major battles fought by invasion force and afterwards
Carrier Air Wing Two (CVW-2) mission briefing aboard USS Constellation (CV-64), 21 March 2003.
Wingtip vortices are visible trailing from an F-15E as it disengages from midair refueling with a KC-10 during Operation Iraqi Freedom
NASA Landsat 7 image of Baghdad, 2 April 2003. The dark streaks are smoke from oil well fires set in an attempt to hinder attacking air forces
A U.S. amphibious fighting vehicle destroyed near Nasiriyah
A U.S. soldier stands guard duty near a burning oil well in the Rumaila oil field, 2 April 2003
Destroyed Iraqi T-72 tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf
British soldiers engage Iraqi Army positions with their 81mm Mortars south of Basra, 26 March 2003.
A T72 Asad Babil abandoned after facing the final U.S. thrust into Baghdad
The northern front during March and April 2003
Aftermath of Battle
Peshmerga, U.S. Special Operations
A squad leader with the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) (15th MEU (SOC))
The destroyed remains of Iraqi tanks and other armored vehicles litter an Iraqi military complex west of Diwaniyah
A combat camera video shows the 1 April 2003 footage of PFC Jessica Lynch on a stretcher during her rescue from Iraq.
U.S. Army M1A1 Abrams tanks and their crews pose for a photo in front of the "Victory Arch" monument at Baghdad's Ceremony Square in November 2003.
An American M1 Abrams tank destroyed in Baghdad
Marines from 1st Battalion 7th Marines enter a palace during the Battle of Baghdad
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the capture of the city
USS Abraham Lincoln returning to port carrying its Mission Accomplished banner
The "Coalition of the willing" named by the US State Department in 2003.
Polish GROM troops pose immediately after the port's capture during the Battle of Umm Qasr.
Aircraft of the USAF 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and UK and Australian counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert on 14 April 2003. Aircraft include KC-135 Stratotanker, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16CJ Falcon, British GR-4 Tornado, and Australian F/A-18 Hornet
A study found that in the lead up to the Iraq War, most U.S. sources were overwhelmingly in favor of the invasion.
Poland was part of the "coalition of the willing"
Members of the RAN Clearance Diving Team Three and an Australian Army LCM-8 inspecting camouflaged mines, 21 March 2003.

22 days after the first day of the invasion, the capital city of Baghdad was captured by Coalition forces on 9 April 2003 after the six day long Battle of Baghdad.

A map of Mosul and its quarters.


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Major city in northern Iraq, serving as the capital of Nineveh Governorate.

Major city in northern Iraq, serving as the capital of Nineveh Governorate.

A map of Mosul and its quarters.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the National Museum of Iraq in Baghdad. It containins ancient Mesopotamian artifacts, mainly Assyrian.
The Shrine of Imam Yahya Abu Al Qasim
Nineveh - Mashki Gate
Dair Mar Elia south of Mosul, Iraq's oldest monastery of the Assyrian Church of the East, dating from the 6th century. It was destroyed by ISIS in 2014.
A Persian miniature depicting the siege of Mosul in 1261–63 from:.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
A coffee house in Mosul, 1914.
Mosul in 1932. The leaning minaret of Great Mosque of al-Nuri gave the city its nickname "the hunchback" (الحدباء al-Ḥadbāˈ)
Mosul, 1968
Iraqi police, U.S. Soldiers patrol neighborhood in Mosul, March 19, 2007
Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in Mosul on July 22, 2003.
A souk (traditional market) in Mosul, 1932
Celebration at the Syriac Orthodox Monastery in Mosul, early 20th century
View of the Tigris river in Mosul
Mosul Grand Mosque
Mar Mattai Monastery of the Syriac Orthodox Church
Church of Saint Thomas, Mosul
Church of Saint Thomas, Mosul
Old house in Mosul.
Mosul university Stadium

Mosul is approximately 400 km north of Baghdad on the Tigris river.

Hulagu's army besieging the walls of Baghdad

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

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Hulagu's army besieging the walls of Baghdad
Persian painting (14th century) of Hülegü's army besieging a city. Note use of the siege engine
Hulagu (left) imprisons Caliph Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death. Medieval depiction from Le livre des merveilles, 15th century

The siege of Baghdad was a siege that took place in Baghdad in 1258, lasting for 13 days from January 29, 1258 until February 10, 1258.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)

Muslim world

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Also known as the Ummah.

Also known as the Ummah.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)
A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritware, 12th century.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim polymath from Al Andalus.
The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands. Note: the map is here shown upside-down from the original to match current North/Up, South/Down map design
Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).
Indonesia is currently the most populous Muslim-majority country.
Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country.
Islamic schools of law across the Muslim world
Muslim Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni receiving a richly decorated robe of honor from the caliph al-Qadir in 1000. Miniature from the Rashid al-Din's Jami‘ al-Tawarikh
Battle between Ismail of the Safaviyya and the ruler of Shirvan, Farrukh Yassar
Shah of Safavid Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad Khan
Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II
A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar
Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran
Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature painting
Hadiqatus-suada by Oghuz Turkic poet Fuzûlî
The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.<ref>The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night's Entertainments - David Claypoole Johnston - Google Books {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200517214353/https://books.google.com/books?id=ATkQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA543&dq=princess+parizade#v=onepage&q=princess%20parizade&f=false |date=17 May 2020 }}. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved on 23 September 2013.</ref>
Cassim in the Cave by Maxfield Parrish.
The Magic carpet.
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's ''Astrolabe. (13th century)
One of Mansur ibn Ilyas (Ak Koyunlu era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif
A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.
An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.
The Elephant Clock was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.
"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.
The city of Baghdad being besieged during the Mongolian invasions.
Mongol armies capture of the Alamut, Persian miniature.
Safavid Empire's Zamburak.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.<ref>{{cite web|last=Unknown|url=http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|title=Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort|date=1590–95|website=the Akbarnama|access-date=19 May 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140519132308/http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|archive-date=19 May 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref>
The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.
Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.
East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of Plassey
Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.
Combat during the Russo-Persian Wars.
French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans
The Java War between the Netherlands and Javanese aristocracy led by Prince Diponegoro, from 1825 to 1830
The French conquest of Algeria, from 1830 to 1903
The Hispano-Moroccan War between Spain and Morocco, from 1859 to 1860
The Italo-Turkish War between Italy and the Ottoman Empire from 1911 to 1912
The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686, painted by Frans Geffels
French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857)
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899
The Melilla War between Spain and Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909
Turkish Muslims at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque on Eid al-Adha
Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate Ashura
Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of Muhammad in Hittin
Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian Sahara
Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962
Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims
Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A primary classroom in Niger.
Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.
Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, Iran
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Taj Mahal in Agra city of India was constructed during the Mughal Empire
Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Selangor, Malaysia
Great Mosque of Córdoba in Spain is a Moorish-style mosque.
The Charminar in Hyderabad, India
"Tower of Introspection" (省心楼) at the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
The design of Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan is inspired by Bedouin's tent.
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Girih tiles
The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel.
Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.
Kufic script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)
Bismallah calligraphy.
Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.
Islamic calligraphy praising Ali.
Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.
A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque
A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.
Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta
A tribal delegation in Chad
Minangkabau people (Padang, Western Sumatra) reciting Al-Qur'an
Muslim girls walking for school in Bangladesh

The age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786–809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic, and to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258.

A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.


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The capital city of the ancient Babylonian Empire, which itself is a term referring to either of two separate empires in the Mesopotamian area in antiquity.

The capital city of the ancient Babylonian Empire, which itself is a term referring to either of two separate empires in the Mesopotamian area in antiquity.

A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Map of Babylon with major areas and modern-day villages
Babylon in 1932
Brick structures in Babylon, photographed in 2016
Illustration by Leonard William King of fragment K. 8532, a part of the Dynastic Chronicle listing rulers of Babylon grouped by dynasty.
The Queen of the Night relief. The figure could be an aspect of the goddess Ishtar, Babylonian goddess of sex and love.
Map showing the Babylonian territory upon Hammurabi's ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC
Old Babylonian cylinder seal, hematite. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar (about 40 mi north of Babylon on the map above) either during, or shortly before, the reign of Hammurabi. It depicts the king making an animal offering to the sun god Shamash.
Linescan camera image of the cylinder seal above (reversed to resemble an impression).
Sennacherib of Assyria during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh
Cuneiform cylinder from reign of Nebuchadnezzar II honoring the exorcism and reconstruction of the ziggurat Etemenanki by Nabopolassar.
Detail of a relief from the reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate
A reconstruction of the blue-tiled Ishtar Gate, which was the northern entrance to Babylon. It was named for the goddess of love and war. Bulls and dragons, symbols of the god Marduk, decorated the gate.
Babylonian soldier in the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BCE, Xerxes I tomb.
Plan of ruins in 1905 with locations and names of villages
Lion of Babylon
Location of the Al Qurnah Disaster where over 200 cases of antiquities from Fresnel's mission were lost in 1855
Original tiles of the processional street. Ancient Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq.
Mušḫuššu (sirrush) and aurochs on either side of the processional street. Ancient Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq
Woodcut in 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle depicting the fall of Babylon.
"The Walls of Babylon and the Temple of Bel (Or Babel)", by 19th-century illustrator William Simpson – influenced by early archaeological investigations.
Nebuchadnezzar II ordering the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to please his consort Amyitis, R ené-Antoine Houasse, 1676
Contemporary artwork depicting Babylon at the height of its stature.
The Fall of Babylon, Mezzotint by J. Martin, 1831
The Daughters of Jerusalem Weeping by the Waters of Babylon, by John Martin, 1834
Alexander the Great receiving the keys of Babylon, by Johann Georg Platzer, ca 1740
The Figured Apocalypse of the Dukes of Savoy - Escorial E Vit.5 - Fall of Babylon, 15h century
The Walls of Babylon by Antonio Tempesta, 1610

The site of the ancient city lies just south of present-day Baghdad.

Gold dinar of al-Mansur


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The second Abbasid caliph, reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 CE – 775 CE) succeeding his brother Saffah ((r.

The second Abbasid caliph, reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 CE – 775 CE) succeeding his brother Saffah ((r.

Gold dinar of al-Mansur
Khorasan and other territories during the Caliphate in 750.
Map of Baghdad between 767 and 912 AD. The city was founded by Al-Mansur in 762.
Abbasid Silver Dirham of Caliph Al-Mansur 754–775
A mancus issued under the Saxon king Offa of Mercia (757–796), copied from a gold dinar of Al-Mansur's reign. It combines the Latin legend OFFA REX with Arabic legends. The date of A.H. 157 (773–774) is readable. British Museum.

750 – 754)). He is known for founding the 'Round City' of Madinat al-Salam, which was to become the core of imperial Baghdad.