Baghdad

Baghdad, IraqBagdadBaghdādBagdhadBaġdādBhagdadcapital BaghdādAbbasid Baghdadal-Baghdād
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world.wikipedia
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Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world.
The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad.

House of Wisdom

Bayt al-Hikmabecame the centre of the scientific worldGrand Library of Baghdad
This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as hosting a multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning".
The House of Wisdom, also known as the Grand Library of Baghdad, refers to either a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

Islamic Golden Age

medieval Islamic worldIslamic civilizationGolden Age of Islam
Baghdad was the largest city in the world for much of the Abbasid era during the Islamic Golden Age, peaking at a population of more than a million.
This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language.

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

sack of BaghdadSiege of Baghdadfall of Baghdad
The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.

Round city of Baghdad

Round CityBaghdadMadinat al-Salam
When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace.
The Round City of Baghdad is the original core of Baghdad, built by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur in 762–766 CE as the official residence of the Abbasid court.

Iraqi insurgency (2003–2011)

Iraqi insurgencyIraqi insurgentsinsurgents
In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgency attacks.
The invasion phase consisted of a conventionally fought war which concluded with the capture of the Iraq capital Baghdad by U.S. forces.

Ctesiphon

Seleucia-CtesiphonSelucia-CtesiphonAl-Madain
They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (and also just north of where ancient Babylon had once stood), and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city.
Ctesiphon (Attic Greek Middle Persian: 𐭲𐭩𐭮𐭯𐭥𐭭 tyspwn or tysfwn, ) was an ancient city, located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about 35 km southeast of present-day Baghdad.

Al-Mansur

Abu Ja'far al-Mansural-ManṣūrAl Mansur
When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (and also just north of where ancient Babylon had once stood), and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun.
He is also known for founding the 'round city' of Madinat al-Salam which was to become the core of imperial Baghdad.

Salman Pak

MadainSalman Pak, Iraq
Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad.
Salman Pak is a city located approximately 15 mi south of Baghdad near a peninsula formed by a broad eastward bend of the Tigris River.

List of largest cities in the Arab world

eighth-largestfifth-largest cityfourth-largest
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world.

Muslim world

Islamic worldMuslim countriesIslamic countries
Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center of the Muslim world.
The age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786–809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic, and to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258.

Babylon

BabilBabelAncient Babylon
They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (and also just north of where ancient Babylon had once stood), and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city.
The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq, about 85 km south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris.

Kufa

al-KūfahAl-Kufaal-Kufah
The four surrounding walls of Baghdad were named Kufa, Basra, Khurasan, and Syria; named because their gates pointed in the directions of these destinations. It has recently come to light that the famed Fatimid da'i, al-Mu'ayyad al-Shirazi, had a direct role in supporting al-Basasiri and helped the general to succeed in taking Mawṣil, Wāsit and Kufa.
Kufa, also spelled Kufah, is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf.

Tigris

Tigris RiverRiver TigrisDijla
Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris.

Iraq War

Operation Iraqi FreedomIraqwar in Iraq
In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011.
At 5:34 a.m. Baghdad time on 20 March 2003 (9:34 pm, 19 March EST) the surprise military invasion of Iraq began.

Ibn Battuta

Ibn BatutaIbn BatutahIbn Battutah
According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received.
Then, instead of continuing on to Baghdad with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a six-month detour that took him into Persia.

Graeco-Arabic translation movement

Translation MovementArabic translationsThe Translation Movement
The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun.
The translation movement took place in Baghdad from the mid-eighth century to the late tenth century.

Arab world

Arab countriesArab statesArab
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world.

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmial-KhwārizmīMuhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī
Notable scholars based in Baghdad during this time include translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq, mathematician al-Khwarizmi, and philosopher Al-Kindi.
Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.

Muʿtazila

Mu'taziliMu'tazilaMu'tazilite
Baghdad was also a significant center of Islamic religious learning, with Al-Jahiz contributing to the formation of Mu'tazili theology, as well as Al-Tabari culminating the scholarship on the Quranic exegesis.
Muʿtazila is a rationalist school of Islamic theology that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both now in Iraq, during the 8th to the 10th centuries.

Al-Ma'mun

al-Mamunal-Maʾmūnal-Ma'mūn
The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun.
Abdallah, the future al-Ma'mun, was born in Baghdad on the night of the 13 to 14 September 786 CE to Harun al-Rashid and his concubine Marajil, from Badghis.

Al-Kindi

AlkindusAl-KindīAl Kindi
Notable scholars based in Baghdad during this time include translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq, mathematician al-Khwarizmi, and philosopher Al-Kindi.
Al-Kindi was born in Kufa and educated in Baghdad.

2003 invasion of Iraq

invasion of IraqIraq War2003 Iraq War
In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011.
In the early morning of 19 March 2003, U.S. forces abandoned the plan for initial, non-nuclear decapitation strikes against 55 top Iraqi officials, in light of reports that Saddam Hussein was visiting his sons, Uday and Qusay, at Dora Farms, within the al-Dora farming community on the outskirts of Baghdad.

Mosul

Mosul, IraqMusulMossul
It has recently come to light that the famed Fatimid da'i, al-Mu'ayyad al-Shirazi, had a direct role in supporting al-Basasiri and helped the general to succeed in taking Mawṣil, Wāsit and Kufa.
Located approximately 400 km north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank.

Abbasid Samarra

Samarraal-KarkhSamarran
Baghdad's early meteoric growth eventually slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135).
Founded by the caliph al-Mu'tasim, Samarra was briefly a major metropolis that stretched dozens of kilometers along the east bank of the Tigris, but was largely abandoned in the latter half of the 9th century, especially following the return of the caliphs to Baghdad.