Baker

bakersmaster bakerbakehouseBaker, CaliforniabakeryBakery ownerbakingBaxtersBoulangercake artist
A baker is a tradesperson who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made of flour by using an oven or other concentrated heat source.wikipedia
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Wu Dalang

Ming fiction and art records examples of various bakers; for example, in Feng Menglong's story, the Bo couple owns a bakery to sell the cakes and snacks while in Water Margin, the character Wu Dalang does not have a settled store and sells pancakes on the shoulder pole along the street The Ming-era painter Qiu Ying's work Along the River During the Qingming Festival shows food stores alongside the street and peddlers who are selling food along the streets.

Qiu Ying

Qiú Yīng
Ming fiction and art records examples of various bakers; for example, in Feng Menglong's story, the Bo couple owns a bakery to sell the cakes and snacks while in Water Margin, the character Wu Dalang does not have a settled store and sells pancakes on the shoulder pole along the street The Ming-era painter Qiu Ying's work Along the River During the Qingming Festival shows food stores alongside the street and peddlers who are selling food along the streets.

Along the River During the Qingming Festival

Along the River During Qingming FestivalA City of CathayAlong The River at Qing Ming
Ming fiction and art records examples of various bakers; for example, in Feng Menglong's story, the Bo couple owns a bakery to sell the cakes and snacks while in Water Margin, the character Wu Dalang does not have a settled store and sells pancakes on the shoulder pole along the street The Ming-era painter Qiu Ying's work Along the River During the Qingming Festival shows food stores alongside the street and peddlers who are selling food along the streets.

Jin Ping Mei

Ximen QingThe Golden LotusThe Plum in the Golden Vase
The work The Plum in the Golden Vase mentions baozi (steam bun).

Baozi

baomeat bunbun
The work The Plum in the Golden Vase mentions baozi (steam bun).

Columbian exchange

The Grand Exchangeintroducedoccurred with the discovery of the New World
The Columbian Exchange, which began in 1492, had a profound influence on the baking occupation.

Caribbean

the CaribbeanWest IndiesWest Indian
Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, and ingredients such as cocoa and chocolate became available in the Old World.

Cocoa solids

cocoacocoa powdercacao
Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, and ingredients such as cocoa and chocolate became available in the Old World.

Chocolate

chocolatescocoacacao
Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, and ingredients such as cocoa and chocolate became available in the Old World.

Old World

OldAfro-Eurasianancient
Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, and ingredients such as cocoa and chocolate became available in the Old World.

Sugar beet

sugar beetsbeet sugarsugarbeet
In the eighteenth century, processors learned how to refine sugar from sugar beets, allowing Europeans to grow sugar locally.

Antoine-Augustin Parmentier

Antoine ParmentierParmentierAntoine Auguste Parmentier
Two important books on bread-baking were published in the 1770s: Paul-Jacques Malaouin published L'art du meinier, du boulanger et du vermicellier (The Art of the Miller, the Bread-Baker, and the Pasta-Maker) in 1775, and Antoine-Augustin Parmentier published Le parfair boulanger (The Perfect Bread-Baker) in 1778.

Manchester

Manchester, EnglandManchester, United KingdomCity of Manchester
A study of the English city of Manchester from 1824–85, during the Industrial Revolution, determined that "baker and shopkeeper" was the third-most common occupation, with 178 male bakers, 19 female bakers, and eight bakers of unknown sex in the city at that time.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
A study of the English city of Manchester from 1824–85, during the Industrial Revolution, determined that "baker and shopkeeper" was the third-most common occupation, with 178 male bakers, 19 female bakers, and eight bakers of unknown sex in the city at that time.

Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution

textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolutiontextile manufacturetextile industry
This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.

Tavern

tavernsbarordinary
This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.

Pub

public housepubspublic houses
This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.

Cotton-spinning machinery

Spinning (ring mill)spindlesSpinning (Mule mill)
This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.

Merchant

merchantstraderstrader
This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.

Calico

calico printingcalico printercalicoes
This occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer.

New York State Assembly

State AssemblyNew York AssemblyAssemblyman
In 1895, the New York State Assembly passed a reformist "bakeshop law" which included protections for bakery workers; the law "banned employees from sleeping in the bakeries; specified the drainage, plumbing and maintenance necessary to keep the bakeries sanitary (cats were specifically allowed to stay on the premise—presumably to deal with the rats); limited the daily and weekly maximum of hours worked; and established an inspectorate to make sure these conditions were met."

Cat

domestic catcatsFelis catus
In 1895, the New York State Assembly passed a reformist "bakeshop law" which included protections for bakery workers; the law "banned employees from sleeping in the bakeries; specified the drainage, plumbing and maintenance necessary to keep the bakeries sanitary (cats were specifically allowed to stay on the premise—presumably to deal with the rats); limited the daily and weekly maximum of hours worked; and established an inspectorate to make sure these conditions were met."

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
The legislation was soon replicated in other states.

Utica, New York

UticaUtica, NYCity of Utica
Joseph Lochner, a bakery owner in Utica, New York, was subsequently convicted of violating the law for forcing his employees to work more than sixty hours a week.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
He appealed his case to the U.S. Supreme Court, which decided, in the highly influential case of Lochner v. New York (1905), over a dissent from Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, that the labor law violated a constitutional right to "freedom of contract."