A report on Empire of Japan and Bakumatsu

A 150-pound Satsuma cannon, built in 1849. It was mounted on Fort Tenpozan at Kagoshima. Caliber: 290mm, length: 4220mm
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Commodore Matthew C. Perry
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Townsend Harris negotiated the "Treaty of Amity and Commerce" in 1858, opening Japan to foreign influence and trade, under unequal conditions.
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Tokugawa Nariaki
Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Yamaoka Tesshū, a famous samurai of the Bakumatsu period. He was later appointed as the chief of the Seieitai, an elite bodyguard for the 15th Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
A colored Photochrom print version of a panorama of Edo (now Tokyo) showing daimyo residences. Following the end of the Shogunate in 1867, the daimyo residences in Edo (now Tokyo) were razed so that government, commercial and industrial buildings could be built in their place. The location from which the photographs were taken corresponds to Atago Shrine in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
The secret Imperial Order to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate (1867)
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last shōgun, c. 1867
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Ebara Soroku, a samurai of the late Edo period who went on to become an educator and politician. He assisted in establishing the Numazu Military Academy after Boshin War.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Royal Navy frigate HMS Phaeton demanded supplies while in Nagasaki harbour in 1808.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
The American merchant ship Morrison of Charles W. King was repelled from Edo Bay in 1837.
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
Russians meeting Japanese in 1779.
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
{{transl|ja|Shōhei Maru}}
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
{{transl|ja|Asahi Maru}}
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Odaiba battery at the entrance of Tokyo, built in 1853–54 to prevent an American intrusion.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Coastal wooden cannon built by the {{transl|ja|daimyō}} at the order of the {{transl|ja|bakufu}} for Commodore Perry's arrival.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
{{nihongo|Nirayama|韮山}} reverberatory furnace in Izunokuni, Shizuoka built by Egawa Hidetatsu. Construction began in November 1853 and was completed in 1857; it operated until 1864.{{efn|A Dutch book entitled The Casting Processes at the National Iron Cannon Foundry in Luik ({{lang|nl|Het Gietwezen ins Rijks Iizer-Geschutgieterij, to Luik}}) written in 1826 by Huguenin Ulrich (1755–1833) was used as a reference to build the furnace. }}
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
One of the cannons of Odaiba, now at the Yasukuni Shrine. 80-pound bronze, bore: 250mm, length: 3830mm
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
thumb|upright|Marquess Kuroda Nagahiro of Fukuoka. Nagahiro (like his close relative, Shimazu Nariakira) was a serious proponent of technological modernization after Commodore Perry's arrival. He greatly encouraged learning amongst his retainers, and sent them to the best schools of Edo, Osaka, and Nagasaki to absorb the Western knowledge and technical expertise which was entering the country at the time.
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
The {{transl|ja|Kanrin Maru}}, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1855.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
The Nagasaki Naval Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima.
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
The wreckage of Diana following the 1854 Ansei-Tōkai earthquake and tsunami, Illustrated London News, 1856.
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
View of Yokohama in 1859.
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Foreign ships in Yokohama harbor.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
A foreign trading house in Yokohama in 1861.
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Allegory of inflation and soaring prices during the Bakumatsu era.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Attack on the British legation in Edo, July 1861.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Assassination of Tairō Ii Naosuke in the Sakuradamon incident (1860).
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
The members of the First Japanese Embassy to Europe (1862) visiting the 1862 International Exhibition in London, from the Illustrated London News.
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
An 1861 image expressing the Jōi ({{lang|ja|攘夷}}, "Expel the Barbarians") sentiment.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Japanese cannons shooting on Foreign shipping at Shimonoseki in 1863.
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
The USS Wyoming battling in the Shimonoseki Straits against the Choshu steam warships Daniel Webster (six guns), the brig Lanrick (Kosei, with ten guns), and the steamer Lancefield (Koshin, of four guns).
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
USS Wyoming sinking the Choshu steamer Lancefield.
National Diet Building, 1930
Birds-eye view of the bombardment of Kagoshima by the Royal Navy, August 15, 1863. Le Monde Illustré.
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Initial settlement between the Bakufu and the British.
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Bombardment of Shimonoseki, 1863–1864.
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
The French engagement at Shimonoseki, with the warships Tancrède and Semiramis, under Rear-Admiral Charles Jaurès. Le Monde illustré, October 10, 1863.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
French Navy troops taking possession of Japanese cannons at Shimonoseki.
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Guns of the Boshin War from top to bottom: a Snider, a Starr, a Gewehr.
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
Shogunal troops in 1864, Illustrated London News.
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

Between 1853 and 1867, Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and changed from a feudal Tokugawa shogunate to the modern empire of the Meiji government.

- Bakumatsu

Thus, the period known as Bakumatsu began.

- Empire of Japan

3 related topics with Alpha


Tokugawa shogunate

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The military government of Japan during the Edo period from 1603 to 1868.

The military government of Japan during the Edo period from 1603 to 1868.

The mon of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868) preserved 250 years of peace.
Edo Castle, 17th century
Dutch trading post in Dejima, c. 1805
Sakuradamon Gate of Edo Castle where Ii Naosuke was assassinated in 1860
Samurai of the Shimazu clan

The Tokugawa shogunate declined during the Bakumatsu ("final act of the shogunate") period from 1853 and was overthrown by supporters of the Imperial Court in the Meiji Restoration in 1868.

The Empire of Japan was established under the Meiji government, and Tokugawa loyalists continued to fight in the Boshin War until the defeat of the Republic of Ezo at the Battle of Hakodate in June 1869.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.

Meiji Restoration

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Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.
A teenage Emperor Meiji with foreign representatives at the end of the Boshin War, 1868–1870.
The Tokyo Koishikawa Arsenal was established in 1871.
Allegory of the New fighting the Old, in early Japan Meiji, around 1870

The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu) and the beginning of the Meiji era, during which time Japan rapidly industrialized and adopted Western ideas and production methods.

The ideal of samurai military spirit lived on in romanticized form and was often used as propaganda during the early 20th-century wars of the Empire of Japan.

Location of Ezo

Republic of Ezo

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Location of Ezo
Troops of the former bakufu being transported to Ezo (Hokkaido) in 1868
Location of Ezo
(From left to right) The ships Kaiten, Kaiyō, Kanrin, Chōgei, Mikaho, part of the fleet led by Enomoto Takeaki, while anchored off Shinagawa shortly before their departure
The governmental building of the Republic of Ezo at Goryōkaku, formerly the offices of the Hakodate bugyō
The French military advisors and their Japanese allies in Ezo. Front row, second from left: Jules Brunet, turning towards Matsudaira Tarō
The Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay, May 1869; in the foreground, Kasuga and Kōtetsu of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Enomoto Takeaki, President.
Ōtori Keisuke, Commander-in-Chief.
Arai Ikunosuke, Commander of the Navy.
Hijikata Toshizō, Commander of the Shinsengumi.

The Republic of Ezo (蝦夷共和國) was a short-lived separatist state established in 1869 on the island of Ezo, now Hokkaido, by a part of the former military of the Tokugawa shogunate at the end of the Bakumatsu period in Japan.

The Republic of Ezo existed for five months before being annexed by the newly established Empire of Japan.