A 20th century of depiction of Tarabai by artist Baburao Painter. She unsuccessfully rebelled against the Peshwa in 1751.
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Confederacy at its zenith in 1760 (yellow areas)
A c. 1770 drawing of the Third battle of Panipat

After Baji Rao's death in April 1740, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed 19-year old Balaji as the Peshwa in August 1740, despite opposition from other chiefs such as Raghoji I Bhonsle.

- Balaji Baji Rao

Over the next fifty years, Balaji followed by his son, Bajirao I and grandson Balaji Bajirao with help of capable military leaders from the clans of Shinde, Holkar, Gaekwad, Pawar and Bhonsle of Nagpur expanded Maratha power in all directions of the Indian subcontinent.

- Shahu I

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Maratha Empire

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
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Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas after Chhatrapati Shahu I's reign.

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as the next Peshwa by Shahu despite the opposition of other chiefs.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum

Shivaji

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum
Shivneri Fort
South India at the turn of the 17th century
An early-20th-century painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan
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A 20th century depiction of Shivaji's surprise attack on Mughal general Shaista Khan in Pune by M.V. Dhurandhar
Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar
20th century depiction by M.V. Dhurandhar of Raja Shivaji at the court of Mughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai
20th century depiction of the Coronation Durbar with over 100 characters depicted in attendance by M.V. Dhurandhar
Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him
Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, is now a place of pilgrimage.
Royal seal of Shivaji
Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad
Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1758
An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind
A miniature Bronze statue of Shivaji Maharaj in the collection of the Shri Bhavani Museum of Aundh
Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort
A replica of Raigad Fort built by children on occasion of Diwali as a tribute to Shivaji.

Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji and son of Sambhaji, was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during the 27-year period conflict.

The empire expanded greatly under the leadership of Balaji's son, Peshwa Bajirao I and grandson, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao.

Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression

Baji Rao I

The 7th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.

The 7th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.

Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression
Baji Rao I's handwriting in Modi script.
Troop movements of Baji Rao I and Asaf Jah I (Nizam-ul-Mulk) in the Battle of Palkhed
Equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune
Seal of Bajirao I
The Shaniwar Wada fortress in Pune was built as the seat of the Peshwa rulers during Baji Rao's reign.

His father was Balaji Vishwanath, the Peshwa of Shahu I and his mother was Radhabai Barve.

They had four sons Balaji Baji Rao (also called Nanasaheb), Ramchandra Rao, Raghunath Rao and Janardhan Rao, who died at an early age.

A 1927 depiction of Tarabai in battle by noted Marathi painter M. V. Dhurandhar

Tarabai

The regent of the Maratha Empire of India from 1700 until 1708.

The regent of the Maratha Empire of India from 1700 until 1708.

A 1927 depiction of Tarabai in battle by noted Marathi painter M. V. Dhurandhar
Equestrian statue of Tarabai in Kolhapur

In order to divide the Maratha onslaught, the Mughals released Shahu I, Sambhaji's son and Tarabai's nephew, on certain conditions.

When Balaji Baji Rao left for the Mughal frontier, Tarabai urged Rajaram II to remove him from the post of Peshwa.

Rajaram II of Satara

The sixth monarch of Maratha Empire.

The sixth monarch of Maratha Empire.

He was an adopted son of Chhattrapati Shahu.

Nevertheless, Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao retained him as the titular Chhatrapati.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage

Maratha Peshwa and Generals from Bhat Family

Prominent Indian Chitpavan Brahmin family who dominated India for around 100 years in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Prominent Indian Chitpavan Brahmin family who dominated India for around 100 years in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage

Balaji Vishwanath was the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas (Marathi for Prime Minister) hailing from the Chitpavan Brahmin family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century. Balaji Vishwanath assisted a young Maratha Emperor Shahu I, grandson of Shivaji, to consolidate his grip on a kingdom that had been racked by civil war and persistent attack by the Mughals under Aurangzeb. He was called "the second founder of the Maratha State."

Balaji Baji Rao (Nanasaheb) (8 December 1720 – 23 June 1761), also known as Nana Saheb Peshwa was son of Bajirao and Kashibai. Chattrapati Shahu, at time of his death, appointed Balaji Baji Rao Peshwa of Maratha Empire. He contributed to development of Pune, India. Under his reign, borders of Maratha Empire crossed Peshawar (presently in Pakistan) by 1760 AD . However, he is also held responsible for defeat of Marathas at the Battle of Panipat (1761).

Gaekwad dynasty

The Gaekwads of Baroda (also spelled as Gaikwads, Guicowars, Gaekwars) (IAST: Gāyakavāḍa) are a Hindu dynasty of the former Maratha Empire and its subsequent Princely States.

The Gaekwads of Baroda (also spelled as Gaikwads, Guicowars, Gaekwars) (IAST: Gāyakavāḍa) are a Hindu dynasty of the former Maratha Empire and its subsequent Princely States.

Baroda state in 1909
Laxmi Vilas Palace of the Gaekwad dynasty.
A print of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad
Sayajirao with Richard Temple, the Governor of Bombay and other members of the court. Circa 1880
Pilaji Rao, the founder of the dynasty

The Gaekwads were granted the city as a Jagir by Chhatrapati Shahu I, the Chhatrapati of the Maratha empire.

When Umabai Dabhade joined Tarabai's side against Balaji Baji Rao, Pilaji's son Damaji Rao Gaekwad commanded the Dabhade force.

Sadashivrao Bhau

Son of Chimaji Appa (younger brother of Bajirao I) and Rakhmabai (Pethe family) and the nephew of Bajirao Peshwa.

Son of Chimaji Appa (younger brother of Bajirao I) and Rakhmabai (Pethe family) and the nephew of Bajirao Peshwa.

Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Confederacy at its zenith in 1760 (yellow areas)
A portrait of Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa, a part of Peshwa Memorial in Pune, India
An information plaque describing Sadashivrao Bhau. It is a part of The Peshwa Memorial atop Parvati Hill in Pune, India
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition decisively defeat the Maratha Confederacy, during the Third Battle of Panipat.

Nanasaheb (Balaji Baji Rao) stayed in Satara though he had become Peshwa.

After the death of Chhattrapati Shahu, Ramchandrababa Shenvi suggested to Sadashivrao to take Peshwai of Kolhapur, but Nanasaheb Peshwa opposed this idea.