A report on MajapahitIndonesia and Bali

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Subak irrigation system
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
Puputan monument
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
2002 Bali bombings memorial
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Aerial photograph of Bali
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Mount Agung is the highest point of Bali.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Bali myna is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Monkeys in Uluwatu
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
Uluwatu
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Wood carving
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Ogoh-ogoh procession on the eve of Nyepi
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
One of the major forms of transport is the scooter.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Bali Mandara Toll Road
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Balinese people
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Population pyramid 2016
Holy Spirit Cathedral, Denpasar
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
Kecak dance
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Balinese cuisine
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Cremation ceremony in Ubud
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Kapten I Wayan Dipta Stadium, the home of Bali United F.C.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
The cliff of Nusa Penida with Kelingking beach at the foregound
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Detailed map of Bali
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
Several tourist spot in Bali island, from top left to right: Sunset over Amed beach with Mount Agung in the background, Garuda Wisnu Kencana monument, Tanah Lot temple, view from top of Besakih Temple, scuba diving around Pemuteran, The Rock Bar at Jimbaran Bay, and various traditional Balinese people activities
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
Trans Sarbagita bus
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
An Indonesian batik
Pura Ulun Danu Bratan
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Kecak dance
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Cremation ceremony in Nusa Penida
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Melasti, is a Hindu Balinese purification ceremony and ritual
Asia in the early 14th century
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Rejang, A sacred balinesse dance to greet The Gods that come down to the earth on ceremony day
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
Penataran Lempuyang Temple, Gunung Lempuyang, Bali
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
Ibnu Batutah Mosque, Kuta
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Saint Joseph's Church, Denpasar
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.
Ling Sii Miao Buddhist Temple, Denpasar
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

- Bali

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343.

- Bali

Under the initiative of her able and ambitious prime minister, Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent its armada to conquer the neighbouring island of Bali.

- Majapahit

A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and then to the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi.

- Indonesia

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Location (red) of Lombok

Lombok

3 links

Location (red) of Lombok
The Sasak chiefs of Lombok who allied with the Dutch to resist Balinese occupation.
A 75 carat diamond on exhibit at the Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. It was taken, together with 230 kg of gold, 7000 kg of silver and three chests of jewels and precious stones from the royal palace of Lombok after a Dutch invasion in 1894. Only part of the treasure was handed back to Indonesia in 1977.
Dutch intervention in Lombok and Karangasem against the Balinese in 1894.
President Joko Widodo examining the earthquake damage.
Mount Rinjani seen from Gili Air
Lake Segara Anak on top of Mt. Rinjani
Traditional Sasak houses.
The oldest mosque dating from 1634 in Bayan.
Pura Meru in Mataram, a Hindu temple built in 1720.
Buddhist Temple near Tanjung on the north coast.
Indigenous Sasak dancers performing traditional Lombok wardance c. 1880
Local Sasak children (c. 1997)
One of the unique traditional crafts from Lombok
The Gili Islands
Manta ray Biorock reef in Gili Islands
Mawun Beach
Harbour of Labuhan Lombok
Lombok "Zainuddin Abdul Madjid International" Airport
Seger Beach, overlooked by the Mandalika International Street Circuit

Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia.

It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa to the east.

The 14th century Majapahit manuscript Nagarakretagama canto 14 mentioned "Lombok Mirah" as one of island identified under Majapahit suzerainty.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Java (Jawa, ; ꦗꦮ; ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Gamelan musical instrument

Gamelan

3 links

Gamelan musical instrument
Musicians performing musical ensemble, The 8th century bas-relief of Borobudur Temple, Central Java, Indonesia
A gamelan player playing bonang. Gamelan Yogyakarta style during a Javanese wedding.
Gamelan is mentioned in the Kakawin Nagarakertagama in a palm-leaf manuscript called lontar that was written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 AD. A collection of National Library of Indonesia in Jakarta
The court of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, c. 1876. Performance of Bedhaya Sacred Dance accompanied by Javanese Gamelan Ensemble
Various Javanese musical instrument in Gamelan Salindro, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826).
Javanese Gamelan Munggang (one of sacred gamelans) being played (as part of ritual) in Surakarta Sunanate, Central Java, Indonesia, 2000
A sindhen is singing a Javanese song accompanied by Gamelan ensemble
Javanese Gamelan in Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Balinese Gamelan in Museu de la Música de Barcelona, Spain
K.P.H. Notoprojo, a famous Indonesian Javanese Gamelan and Rebab player, between 1945 and 1955
The three major indigenous genres of gong-chime music prevalent in Southeast Asia: this includes the Gamelan of western Indonesia; the kulintang of the southern Philippines, eastern Indonesia, and eastern Malaysia; and the piphat of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Burma
Pande (Gamelan Maker) is burning Gong in Besalen in Central Java, Indonesia
Pandes (Gamelan Makers) are forging a gamelan instrument called Kempul (small hanging gong) after burning it, Central Java, Indonesia
Gamelan is used by patients at Sumber Porong Mental Hospital in Java, between 1902 and 1922
Michael Tenzer played Balinese Gamelan in 1992
Gamelan Degung Ensemble performance for the recording at the Radio Republik Indonesia studio, Jakarta, on 24 April 1966
K.R.T. Rahayu Supanggah, one of gamelan maestros. He introduced gamelan to almost the entire world, actively researching, writing, training, creating compositions, teaching, and performing
Kempul
Gong Ageng
Kenong
Bonang
Demung
Saron
Peking
Gendèr
Slenthem
Kendang
thumb|Bedug
thumb|Gambang
Kethuk/Kempyang
thumb|Celempung
thumb|Siter
thumb|Rebab
thumb|Suling or Seruling
thumb|Kemanak
thumb|Kecer
thumb|Keprak
Gong Lanang
Gong Wadon
Gong Klentong
Trompong
Reyong
Ugal
Kantilan
Pemade
Kenyur
Jegogan
Jublag
Klenang
Kendhang Semaradana
Ceng-ceng Kepyak
Ceng-ceng Ricik
Gentora
Suling gambuh
Gender wayang
Rindhik
Curing
Javanese gamelan being played in Keraton Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 25 October 2009
thumb|Wayang Kulit performance with Gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A gamelan ensemble with a group of singers (Sindhen (Female) and Gerong (Male) at the Mangkunegaran Royal Palace in Surakarta, Central Java, between 1870 and 1892
A Gamelan Ensemble was played to accompany the inauguration of the Prince of the late Paku Alam VII at Pakualaman Palace, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, before 1949
A Dalang (Puppeteer), Sindhen (singer) and Wiyaga (gamelan musicians) with Javanese Gamelan at Keraton Yogyakarta the Sultan's Palace in Yogyakarta - Around 1885
Gamelan orchestra in East Java, late 19th century
Balinese Gamelan Performance (part of the ritual) in a Temple, Bali, Circa 1920
A balinese dancer performed Kebyar duduk dance accompanied by a Balinese gamelan Ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1952
Barong dance performance accompanied by a gamelan ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1959
Balinese girls practiced legong dance accompanied by gamelan in Ubud, Bali, Dutch east Indies, between 1910 and 1930
Balinese Gamelan in a village near Sukawati, Bali after the Cremation Ceremony on 21 September 1922
Balinese gamelan being played in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, on 23 September 2010
Sundanese Gamelan with a dancer and Wayang Golek in a hut in Cibodas Botanical Garden, West Java on 28 September 1904
A Gamelan Ensemble and Dance show party for the Regent of Preanger (Now Parahyangan) West Java, between 1880 and 1920
Sundanese Gamelan ensemble of Bandung's Regent, West Java, Dutch east Indies, between 1857 and 1890
A gamelan laras slendro Si Ketuyung (sacred gamelan), a set of gamelan instruments made in 1748, a legacy of Sultan Sepuh IV, Keraton Kasepuhan, Cirebon, Indonesia
Gamelan Degung Ensemble, This photo was taken at Annual Exhibition in Java. between 1910 and 1930
Sundanese Gamelan Degung Performance from West Java, Indonesia, on 6 November 2007
Sekaten, Gamelan Sekaten Kanjeng Kiai Guntur Madu (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan) is usually beaten every day for a week during the Sekaten celebration at the Keraton Yogyakarta. The community was very enthusiastic about listening to the strains of the heirloom gamelan, on 26 November 2017
Melasti, a self-purification ceremony to welcome Nyepi by all Hindus in Bali. This ceremony is held on the beach with the aim of purifying oneself from all bad deeds.
Galungan, a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma in Besakih temple complex in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia
Tingalan Dalem Jumenengan, The 40th Royal coronations anniversary of Susoehoenan Pakubuwono X in Surakarta Sunanate.
Ngaben, the Hindu funeral ceremony of Bali, Indonesia. It is performed to release the soul of a dead person.
Wedding Ceremony, Javanese Wedding ceremony in Java
Legong, Legong Kraton Dance (Legong of the Palace) in Ubud Palace, Bali, Indonesia. In the background, the Gamelan orchestra accompanies the performance, on 23 August 2008
Bedhaya dance performance at the wedding of Hoesein Djajadiningrat and Partini in the palace of Prang Wedono (Mangkoe Negoro VII), the father of the bride, at Solo, Java, in January 1921
Jaipong, The Sundanese Jaipongan Langit Biru dance performance in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Balinese Ramayana dance drama, performed in Sarasvati Garden in Ubud, Bali
King Duryodana in Wayang wong performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet Performance near Prambanan Temple complex in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
thumb|Dalang (Puppet master), Sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and Wiyaga (Gamelan musicians) in Wayang Kulit Show in Java
thumb|Wayang Golek Performance in Yogyakarta
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kethoprak (Javanese popular drama depicting legends, historical or pseudo-historical events). Performance by Kethoprak Tobong Kelana Bhakti Budaya, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Ludruk performance, East Java, Indonesia
Sandiwara performance, West Java, Indonesia
thumb|javanese poetry, Sindhens performance with Gamelan Ensemble on a ceremony in Java, Indonesia, on 5 November 2015
tembang sunda, Sundanase singer sings Sundanese song in a festival
Campursari performance by Didi kempot
Balinese women gamelan Gong Kebyar in Balinese Cultural Festival, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, on 17 June 2013
Gamelan performance at Borobudur International Performances and Art Festival 2018
Gamelan players at Balinese art festival 2018
Kyai Barleyan, a Javanese gamelan at Oberlin College in Ohio. Acquired in 1970, it is believed to be the third-oldest gamelan in use in the United States.
Gamelan Son of Lion, a Javanese-style iron American gamelan based in New York City that is devoted to new music, playing in a loft in SoHo, Manhattan, United States in 2007
Sundanese Gamelan Degung being played in Museo Nacional de las Culturas Mexico, Indra Swara Gamelan Group, on 2 April 2018
Golek Ayun-Ayun Dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble at Bangsal Sri Manganti Keraton Yogyakarta.
The Sundanese Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta.
Gamelan ensemble (or gambelan in Balinese term) accompanying barong performance (Bali lion dance) at Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural complex, Bali, Indonesia.
Telek (masked) dance accompanied by Gamelan ensemble in Bali, between 1950 and 1957.
Wayang wong performance accompanied by Gamelan in Java, between 1890 and 1916.
A gamelan ensemble consisting of children in a temple complex in Bali, between 1910 and 1920.
Children practiced dance with gamelan at Kebun Dalem Semarang, Dutch east Indies, circa 1867.
A gamelan set in an exhibition at the museum of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences (Now, National Museum of Indonesia), Batavia, circa 1896.
Gamelan Kaduk Manis Rengga (sacred gamelan) from Kraton Surakarta, Java, 2003.
A wayang klithik (flat woodden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Gamelan Sekati (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan in the Keraton Yogyakarta) is being played to accompany Sekaten Ceremony in front of Kauman Great Mosque in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 27 April 2004.
Gamelan Nyi Asep Mangsa, Indra Swara, México, on 27 March 2015.
A Gamelan Ensemble accompanies Wayang Kulit Show (the Indonesian Shadow Play) in Java, circa 1870.

Gamelan (ꦒꦩꦼꦭꦤ꧀, ᮌᮙᮨᮜᮔ᮪, ) is the traditional ensemble music of the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese peoples of Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.

The kemanak (a banana-shaped idiophone) and gangsa (another metallophone) are commonly used gamelan instruments in Bali.

The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire.

Balinese couple during their wedding with their friends

Balinese people

3 links

Balinese couple during their wedding with their friends
Balinese dancers, circa 1920–1940
Balinese girls wearing kebaya
Balinese people bringing offerings to the temple
Balinese women preparing for a religious festival
Legong dance
Balinese gamelan
Balinese wood carver
Balinese painting
Besakih Temple

The Balinese people (suku Bali; ) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali.

The Balinese population of 4.2 million (1.7% of Indonesia's population) live mostly on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population.

The third and final wave came from Java, between the 15th and 16th centuries, about the same time as the conversion to Islam in Java, causing aristocrats and peasants to flee to Bali after the collapse of the Javanese Hindu Majapahit Empire in order to escape Mataram's Islamic conversion.

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010

Wayang

2 links

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010
There are three main components of wayang kulit shows including dalang, gamelan (music and sindhen), and wayang kulit itself
Blencong, a Javanese oil lamp in the form of the mythical Garuda bird for wayang kulit performances, before 1924
Palm leaves manuscript of kakawin Arjunawiwaha is written by Mpu Kanwa in 1035 CE
A dalang (puppet master) depicting a fight in a wayang kulit performance
A wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance using kelir (thin fabric) as a border between the puppeteer (dalang) who plays the puppets and the audience
Wayang golek performance (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia
Menak Amir Hamzah manuscripts, before 1792.
Dalang (puppet master), sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and wiyaga (gamelan musicians) in a wayang kulit show in Java
The front view of the Wayang Museum seen from Fatahillah Square (Taman Fatahillah)
Wayang kulit performance with gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A dalang (puppeteer) in a {{Transl|jv|wayang golek}} (wooden puppet) performance, between 1880 and 1910
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta; in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kumbakarna, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Gatot Kaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Wibisana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Princess Shinta, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1983
Yudhishthira, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Princess Tari, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1934
Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, Indonesia
Rahwana, Indonesia in 2004
Ramawijaya, Indonesia in 2004
Gatot kaca, Indonesia in 2015
Kumbakarna, Indonesia before 1976
Dewi Drupadi, Indonesia before 1976
Menak Jingga, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1953
Damar Wulan, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Demon, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1950
Figure of Batara Guru
Duryudhana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Brathasena, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Final fight in alun-alun in Kediri, East Java. Tawang Alun kills Klana. Indonesia 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji, mbok Kili (left), and Ganda Ripa or Panji (right) in the palace in Kediri, 17th century
Radèn Gunung Sari on horse says goodbye to his advisers Tratag and Gimeng before travelling to princess Kumuda Ningrat, 18th century
Princess Sekar Taji and Panji meet in Paluhamba market, 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji in palace garden approached by Klana, 17th century
Competition between Panji Sepuh (left) and Jaya Puspita (right), 18th century
Pandava and Krishna in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
King Duryodana in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Giants in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Punokawan in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Rama and Shinta in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} Ramayana Ballet performance
Opening of {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance, usually showing traditional Javanese dance
Dancing {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} in Malang
Studio portrait of {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} actors
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} Malang
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Anggada, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Jayadrata, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Kendran, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Sangruda, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Duryadana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Gatakaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jayengrana, a collection from Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmaya, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmadi, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jiweng, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Putri Murtinjung, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang Golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, King Maktal (Albania), a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
{{Transl|jv|Kancil}}
{{Transl|jv|Srigala}}
{{Transl|jv|Macan}}
{{Transl|jv|Baya}}
{{Transl|jv|Keong}}
{{Transl|jv|Nenek Petani}}
Wayang glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle.
A wayang kulit set and a gamelan ensemble collection, Indonesia section at the Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
A {{lang|jv|wayang}} show in Java, Indonesia, presenting a {{lang|jv|wayang}} puppet.
Wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Gatot Kaca, Indonesia in 2017.
Sundanese wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia.
A {{lang|jv|wayang klithik}} (flat wooden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet show) accompanied by a gamelan ensemble in Java, circa 1870.
{{lang|jv|Wayang}} (shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
{{lang|jv|Wayang beber}} depiction of a battle.
{{lang|jv|Wayang kulit}} and {{lang|jv|wayang golek}} {{lang|jv|dalang}} (puppeteer), Ki Entus Susmono.
{{lang|jv|Wayang golek}} performance in Yogyakarta.
Wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance.
Kayon (Gunungan).
{{lang|jv|Wayang makassar}}

', also known as ' (ꦮꦪꦁ), is a traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

Performances of wayang puppet theatre are accompanied by a gamelan orchestra in Java, and by gender wayang in Bali.

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit.

Hinduism in Indonesia

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Religion map in Indonesia with Hinduism shown in red.
Devotees climbing the trail towards Mount Bromo during Yadnya Kasada.
Greater India, Indosphere and historic expansion of Hinduism in Southeast Asia.
Archeological evidence suggests Tarumanagara as one of the earliest known Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. The map shows its geographic spread in West Java in the 5th century CE.
The Balinese Om symbol
Acintya is the Supreme God in Balinese Hinduism.
Sculpture of "Batara Guru", an aspect of Shiva in Indonesian Hinduism.
The Hindu Balinese temple offering in Bali
The 9th century Prambanan Shiva temple, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia.
Java's Hindu temple, Candi Sambisari.
Pura Luhur Poten in Mount Bromo
Tamil Hindus walking around the Sri Mariamman Temple, in Medan
Child dressed up for a festive Hindu dance in Ubud, Bali
Balinese pura (Hindu temple) dance
Street decoration in Bali for the Hindu festival Galungan. It celebrates the victory of dharma over adharma (right over wrong).
Balinese Hindus built a shrine dedicated to Sundanese Hindu King Sri Baduga Maharaja Sang Ratu Jaya Dewata in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor, West Java.
Many Indonesians (no matter what religion) use Hindu names such as Wisnu, Surya, Indra, Arya, Putra, Aditya, Sita, etc. The police officer above has the name written "Tri Wisnu".
Tengger Hindu temple at Tengger caldera in East Java
Colourful and festive Hindu rituals of Bali is one of island's attractions.
Garuda Pancasila is said to be inspired from Garuda.
King Siliwangi, of Hindu Sunda kingdom.
Balinese Hindu temple, Pura Taman Saraswati, dedicated to the goddess Sarasvati, Ubud, Bali.
A Candi in Ubud.
Prambanan, the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia.
Lingam in Indonesia, in a temple.
Pura Jagat Natha.

Hinduism in Indonesia, as of the 2018 census, is practised by about 1.74% of the total population, and almost 87% of the population in Bali.

Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia.

These ideas continued to develop during the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires.

Sasak dancers.

Sasak people

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Sasak dancers.
Peresean, a traditional sport conducted by the Sasak Tribe people in the province of West Southeast Nusa
Sasak children in a Sasak village (ca. 1997).
Gendang beleq performance on a road.

The Sasak people live mainly on the island of Lombok, Indonesia, numbering around 3.6 million (85% of Lombok's population).

Lombok Sasak Mirah Adhi is taken from the Nagarakretagama (Desawarnana) literature, a scripture written by Mpu Prapanca that records the power and rule of the Majapahit kingdom.

Specifically, Sasak belongs to the languages of Western Indonesia which also means it is closely related to the languages of Java and Bali.

Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator.

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293.

Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali came under its influence.