Balkan Wars

Balkan WarFirst Balkan WarBalkanthe Balkan WarsBalkan crisisBalkans warBalkansBalkans conflictsSecond Balkan WarTurkish-Bulgarian War
For the articles examining each war individually, see First Balkan War and Second Balkan War.wikipedia
1,637 Related Articles

Kingdom of Bulgaria

BulgariaBulgarianTsardom of Bulgaria
By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large elements of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule.
For several years Bulgaria mobilized an army of more than 1 million people from its population of about 5 million and in the 1910s it engaged in three wars – the First and Second Balkan Wars, and the First World War.

Albania

Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
All three countries, as well as Montenegro, sought additional territories within the large Ottoman-ruled region known as Rumelia, comprising Eastern Rumelia, Albania, Macedonia, and Thrace.
After the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars, the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large elements of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war.
Despite military reforms which reconstituted the Ottoman Modern Army, the Empire lost its North African territories and the Dodecanese in the Italo-Turkish War (1911) and almost all of its European territories in the Balkan Wars (1912–1913).

Kingdom of Greece

GreeceGreekGreek Kingdom
By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large elements of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule.
Besides, as the Commander-in-chief of the Greek Army during the Balkan Wars, his popularity was enormous, rivalled only by that of Venizelos, his Prime Minister.

Kingdom of Serbia

SerbiaSerbiankingdom
By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large elements of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule.
Victorious in the First and Second Balkan Wars, it gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and almost doubled its territory.

Kosovo

Republic of KosovoKosovarKosovan
Instead, the Serbian government (PM: Nikola Pašić) looked to formerly Serb territories in the south, notably "Old Serbia" (the Sanjak of Novi Pazar and the province of Kosovo).
Following their defeat in the Balkan Wars, the Ottomans ceded Kosovo to Serbia and Montenegro.

Skopje

SkopljeSkopje, MacedoniaCity of Skopje
With the outbreak of the war, the Ottoman Empire activated three Army HQs: the Thracian HQ in Constantinople, the Western HQ in Salonika, and the Vardar HQ in Skopje, against the Bulgarians, the Greeks and the Serbians respectively.
In 1912, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars.

Military of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman ArmyOttoman militaryOttoman
Nazım Pasha, Chief of Staff of the Ottoman Army, was held responsible for the failure and was assassinated on 23 January 1913 during the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état.
The military units formed were used in the Balkan Wars and World War I.

Thessaloniki

ThessalonicaSalonikaSalonica
Greece's main forces attacked from Thessaly into Macedonia through the Sarantaporo strait and after capturing Thessaloniki on 12 November (on 26 October 1912, O.S.) expanded its occupied area and linked up with the Serbian army to the northwest, while its main forces turned east towards Kavala, reaching the Bulgarians.
Thessaloniki was revived as the city's official name in 1912, when it joined the Kingdom of Greece during the Balkan Wars.

Ioannina

JaninaYanninaYanina
Another Greek army attacked into Epirus towards Ioannina.
Ioannina was ceded to Greece in 1913 following the Balkan Wars.

Epirus

Epirus NovaEpirus VetusEpirote
Another Greek army attacked into Epirus towards Ioannina.
Following the Balkan Wars and World War I, southern Epirus became part of Greece, while northern Epirus became part of Albania.

Young Turks

Young TurkCongress of Ottoman OppositionJeunes Turcs
After the Young Turk revolution of July 1908, the situation changed drastically.
The unity among the Young Turks that originated from the Young Turk Revolution began to splinter in face of the realities of the ongoing dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, especially with the onset of the Balkan Wars in 1912.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
A large influx of Turks started to flee into the Ottoman heartland from the lost lands.
As the Ottoman Empire further shrank in the Balkan regions and then fragmented during the Balkan Wars, much of the non-Christian populations of its former possessions, mainly Balkan Muslims (Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, Turks, Muslim Bulgarians and Greek Muslims such as the Vallahades from Greek Macedonia), were resettled in various parts of Anatolia, mostly in formerly Christian villages throughout Anatolia.

Kingdom of Montenegro

MontenegroMontenegrinKingdom
By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire, but large elements of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule.

Second Constitutional Era

Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman EmpireOttoman parliamentSecond Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)
The 1908 Young Turk Revolution saw the reinstatement of constitutional monarchy in the Ottoman Empire and the start of the Second Constitutional Era.
It marked a political power struggle between the Committee of Union and Progress and the Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente), consisting of rapid exchanges of power involving a rigged election, a military revolt, and finally a coup d'état on a background of the disastrous Balkan Wars.

Eleftherios Venizelos

VenizelosEleutherios VenizelosVenizelist
The Military League found itself unable to create a new political system, until the League summoned the Cretan politician Eleutherios Venizelos to Athens as its political adviser.
Before the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Venizelos' catalytic role helped gain Greece entrance to the Balkan League, an alliance of the Balkan states against the Ottoman Empire.

Hellenic Navy

Greek NavyRoyal Hellenic NavyGreek
On the naval front, the Ottoman fleet twice exited the Dardanelles and was twice defeated by the Greek Navy, in the battles of Elli and Lemnos.
The Navy, shortly before the Balkan Wars, was composed of a destroyer and battleship fleet.

Thrace

ThracianThraciansTrakya
All three countries, as well as Montenegro, sought additional territories within the large Ottoman-ruled region known as Rumelia, comprising Eastern Rumelia, Albania, Macedonia, and Thrace.
The rest of Thrace was divided among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century, following the Balkan Wars, World War I and the Greco-Turkish War.

Treaty of Constantinople (1897)

Treaty of Constantinoplea peace treaty was signedConstantinople (1897)
Serbia had gained substantial territory during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although it lost a small area back to the Ottoman Empire in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885).
This was formalized after the Balkan Wars, with the island joining Greece on 1 December 1913.

1913 Ottoman coup d'état

Raid on the Sublime Portecoup d'état1913
Nazım Pasha, Chief of Staff of the Ottoman Army, was held responsible for the failure and was assassinated on 23 January 1913 during the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état.
After the coup, the CUP became increasingly nationalist and intolerant of opposition after seeing significant resistance from more liberal Ottoman parties like Freedom and Accord, as well as rebellions and wars against the Ottoman government from non-Muslim nationalities in the Empire, such as the catastrophic Balkan Wars, which saw former Ottoman citizens of Bulgarian, Greek, Macedonian, and Armenian ethnicity actively fighting against the Empire and committing widespread ethnic cleansing against Ottoman Muslims.

Radomir Putnik

PutnikVojvoda PutnikField Marshal Putnik
Field Marshal Radomir Putnik (Радомир Путник; ; 24 January 1847 – 17 May 1917) was the first Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian army in the Balkan Wars and in the First World War.

Alexandroupoli

AlexandroupolisDedeagachDedeagatch
In the event, due to the urgently needed reinforcements in the Thracian front, Bulgarian Headquarters was soon forced to remove its troops from the city (while the Greeks agreed by mutual treaty to remove their units based in Serres) and transport them to Dedeağaç (modern Alexandroupolis), but still it left behind a battalion that started fortifying its positions.
Ottoman control of the town lasted until the Balkan Wars.

Zeki Pasha

Halepli Zeki PashaHarepli Zeki PashaZekki Pasha
Zeki Pasha or Zekki Pasha or Zeki Kolaç or Mehmet Zeki Baraz (Halepli Zeki Paşa; 1862–1943), known as Zeki Baraz Kolaç Kılıçoğlu after the 1934 Surname Law, was a Turkish Balkan Wars and World War I field marshal of the Ottoman Army.

Eastern Rumelia

East RumeliaEastern Roumelia(Eastern) Rumelia
Serbia had gained substantial territory during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although it lost a small area back to the Ottoman Empire in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885).
Most of the Greek population of the region was exchanged with Bulgarians from the Greek provinces of Macedonia and Thrace in the aftermath of the Balkan Wars and World War I.

First Balkan War

FirstBalkan WarsBalkan War
The First Balkan War began when the League member states attacked the Ottoman Empire on 8 October 1912 and ended eight months later with the signing of the Treaty of London on 30 May 1913.