A report on SwedenEstonia and Baltic Sea

Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
Baltic Way in Estonia
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Scania in southern Sweden
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Stockholm archipelago
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Stockholm in Sweden
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Riga in Latvia
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
Helsinki in Finland
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
Gdańsk in Poland
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Tallinn in Estonia
Municipal divisions of Sweden
Administrative divisions of Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
The central business district of Tallinn
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Estonian folk dancers
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
Stockholm Central Station
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006
Uppsala University (established 1477)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Djurgårdsbron
Kalmar Cathedral
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

- Baltic Sea

It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia.

- Estonia

Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.

- Sweden

It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and it is also linked to Denmark (south-west) by the Öresund Bridge.

- Sweden

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Finland

1 links

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Topographic map of Finland
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
Supply of electricity in Finland
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
Municipalities of Finland:
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland

It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.

Commercial contacts in the Baltic Sea region grew and extended during the eighth and ninth centuries.

Finnic languages

1 links

The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

There are around 7 million speakers who live mainly in Finland and Estonia.

Meänkieli and Kven are spoken in northern Sweden and Norway respectively and have the legal status of independent minority languages.

Lithuania

1 links

Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009
Baltic amber was once a valuable trade resource. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.
Trakai Island Castle, the former residence of the Grand Dukes and capital city of the medieval state
Battle of Grunwald and Vytautas the Great in the centre
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918.
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiers
Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania (1919–1920, 1926–1940)
Lituanica above New York in 1933. The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight.
Soldiers of the Red Army enter the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation in 1940.
Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50,000 strong at its peak.
Site of the Paneriai massacre, where the German Nazis and their collaborators executed up to 100,000 people of various nationalities. About 70,000 of them were Jews.
Monument in Naujoji Vilnia in memory of the Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25% of the population of the Baltic states participated
An Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.
Physical map and geomorphological subdivision of Lithuania.
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.
Seimas — Parliament of Lithuania
Commemoration of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in the historical Seimas hall where it was originally signed in 1990. The ceremony is attended by the Lithuanian President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Seimas and other high-ranking officials.
Statutes of Lithuania were the central piece of Lithuanian law in 1529–1795
Lithuanian police cruiser in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius
Stamp dedicated to Lithuania's presidency of the European Union. Post of Lithuania, 2013.
Lithuania was recently a member of the United Nations Security Council. Its representatives are on the right side.
Lithuanian Army soldiers with their NATO allies during Iron Sword 2014
Lithuanian Army soldiers marching with their dress uniforms in Vilnius. An officer stands out with a sword.
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Lithuania's GDP per capita compared to rest of the world (2020)
Lithuania, GNI per capita, PPP (current international $), 2016
A proportional representation of Lithuania exports, 2019
Nasdaq Vilnius Stock Exchange, located in K29 business centre in Konstitucijos Avenue, Vilnius
LituanicaSAT-2 in the thermal-vacuum chamber.
Druskininkai is a popular spa town
Telia (skyscraper with the old Teo LT logo) and Huawei headquarters in Vilnius
Major highways in Lithuania
Marijampolė railway station, completed in 1924
Mineral water spring in Birštonas
FSRU Independence in port of Klaipėda
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant
Population of Lithuania 1915–2014
Population density
Kaunas Clinics is the largest and the most advanced medical institution in Lithuania.
Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai
Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in the region. It was established by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1579.
Vilnius University Life Sciences Center in the Sunrise Valley
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).
Vilnius Cathedral by Laurynas Gucevičius
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987
Lithuanian dark rye bread
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions
Lithuania men's national basketball team is ranked eighth worldwide in FIBA Rankings.

It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea.

It has a maritime border with Sweden to the west on the Baltic Sea.

The event, led by Sąjūdis, was a human chain spanning 600 km across Vilnius, Riga and Tallinn, indicating the desire of the people of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to break away from the Soviet Union.

The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration in 1989 where ca 25% of the total population of the Baltic countries participated

Baltic states

1 links

The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration in 1989 where ca 25% of the total population of the Baltic countries participated
An armoured train used in the Estonian War of Independence against Soviet Russia, 1919
According to the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Geopolitical status in Northern Europe in November 1939
Baltic Assembly session in Seimas Palace, in Vilnius, Lithuania
Baltic Defence College serves as a centre of strategic and operational research and provides professional military education to intermediate- and senior-level officers and government officials
Downtown Tallinn
Downtown Riga
Downtown Vilnius
St. Olaf's church in Tallinn, Estonia
St. Peter's Lutheran Church, Riga, Latvia
Catholic Church of St. Johns, Vilnius, Lithuania
Forests cover over half the landmass of Estonia
Devonian sandstone cliffs in Gauja National Park, Latvia's largest and oldest national park
Jägala waterfall in Estonia is the highest in the Baltics
Gastilionys cliffs in Kauno Marios Regional Park near Kaunas
View from the Bilioniai forthill in Lithuania
Sand dunes of the Curonian Spit near Nida, which are the highest drifting sand dunes in Europe (UNESCO World Heritage Site).<ref>{{cite web |title=Nida and The Curonian Spit, The Insider's Guide to Visiting |url=https://maptrotting.com/nida-guide-baltic-coast/ |website=MapTrotting |access-date=3 January 2019 |date=23 September 2016}}</ref>
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Language branches in Northern Europe
North Germanic (Faroe Islands, Iceland and Scandinavia)
Finnic (Finland, Estonia)
Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania)
Estonia

The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a modern unofficial geopolitical term, typically used to group three countries: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

The three sovereign states on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea are sometimes referred to as the "Baltic nations", less often and in historical circumstances also as the "Baltic republics", the "Baltic lands", or simply the Baltics.

Since the Middle Ages, the Baltic Sea has appeared on maps in Germanic languages as the equivalent of 'East Sea': Ostsee, Østersøen, Oostzee, Östersjön, etc. Indeed, the Baltic Sea lies mostly to the east of Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

Hanseatic League

0 links

Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe.

Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe.

The Hanseatic League was a powerful economic and defensive alliance that left a great cultural and architectural heritage. It is especially renowned for its Brick Gothic monuments, such as Stralsund's St. Nikolai Church and its City Hall, shown here. UNESCO lists the old town of Stralsund, together with Wismar, as a World Heritage Site.
Foundation of the alliance between Lübeck and Hamburg
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League
Town Hall of Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia)
Stargard Mill Gate, Pomerania, today in Poland
Georg Giese from Danzig, 34-year-old German Hanseatic merchant at the Steelyard, painted in London by Hans Holbein
View of the in the port city of Gdańsk (Danzig), today in Poland
Hanseatic museum in Bergen, Norway
Heinrich Sudermann
Modern, faithful painting of the Adler von Lübeck – the world's largest ship in its time
Hanseatic Seal of Elbing (now Elbląg)
Hanseatic Seal of Stralsund
Map of the Hanseatic League, showing principal Hanseatic cities
The Oostershuis, a kontor in Antwerp
The Hanseatic Warehouse in King's Lynn is the only surviving League building in England
Europe in 1097
Europe in 1430
Europe in 1470
Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539)

Growing from a few North German towns in the late 12th century, the League ultimately encompassed nearly 200 settlements across seven modern-day countries; at its height between the 13th and 15th centuries, it stretched from the Netherlands in the west to Russia in the east, and from Estonia in the north to Kraków, Poland in the south.

During the peak of its power, the Hanseatic League had a virtual monopoly over maritime trade in the North and Baltic seas.

The Hanseatic League fully restored its power in Gustav Vasa's Sweden and Frederick I's Denmark, 1523 after the war.