A report on Baltic SeaSweden and Helsinki

Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Central Helsinki in 1820 before rebuilding. Illustration by Carl Ludvig Engel.
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
Construction of Suomenlinna began in the 18th century.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
A map of Helsinki in 1645
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Helsinki seen from Sentinel-2
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Helsingin keskustaajama, an officially recognized urban area
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
A map of Helsinki's capital region (in orange) and its sub-regional municipalities (in light orange)
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
An aerial view of Malmi in the northern part of Helsinki
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
A statue of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, the Grand Duke of Finland, sculpted by Walter Runeberg and Johannes Takanen and erected in 1894 in front of the Helsinki Cathedral at the Senate Square in Helsinki. He was known as a well regarded emperor among the majority of Finns during the grand duchy times.
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
The Helsinki Cathedral is among the most prominent buildings in the city.
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Hotel Kämp, the most luxurious hotel in Helsinki, located in Kluuvi
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
The Restaurant Kappeli from the 19th century in the Esplanadi Park
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
The view across Eläintarhanlahti in summertime
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Casino Helsinki, a non-profit casino owned by government-owned Veikkaus, on Mikonkatu in the city center
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
The 134 m Majakka in Kalasatama has been built on top of the Redi shopping centre. It is currently Finland's tallest building.
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
The Helsinki City Hall houses the City Council of Helsinki.
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Uspenski Cathedral.
Stockholm archipelago
Scania in southern Sweden
Helsinki Synagogue in 2020
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Kamppi Center, a shopping and transportation complex in Kamppi
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Main building of the University of Helsinki as seen from the Senate Square.
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences is the largest business polytechnic in Finland.
Stockholm in Sweden
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The Finnish National Theatre (1902), designed by architect Onni Tarjanne. In front of it, the memorial statue of Aleksis Kivi.
Riga in Latvia
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Havis Amanda, a fountain sculpture at the Helsinki Market Square
Helsinki in Finland
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
Strange Fruit performing at the Night of the Arts in Helsinki
Gdańsk in Poland
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
Sanomatalo, a current office building of Sanoma Corporation
Tallinn in Estonia
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Café Ekberg, the oldest coffeehouse of Helsinki, along the Bulevardi in the Kamppi district
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Municipal divisions of Sweden
A terrace of the Restaurant Roslund at the Teurastamo area
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The Helsinki Olympic Stadium was the centre of activities during the 1952 Summer Olympics.
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Helsinki region roads
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
Old American cars assemble at the Market Square on the evening of the first Friday of every month
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Central railway station, inaugurated 1919
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The South Harbour
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Helsinki Metro with its characteristic bright orange trains is the world's northernmost subway.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
A tram at the Esplanadi in Kaartinkaupunki, Helsinki
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
Karl Fazer, the chocolatier and Olympic sport shooter best known for founding the Fazer company
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Erkki Karu, film director and producer
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Tarja Halonen, former president of Finland
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Kim Hirschovits, ice hockey player
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Linus Torvalds, the software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Esa-Pekka Salonen, conductor and composer
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
Sinebrychoff Art Museum (1842)
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Helsinki University Museum "Arppeanum" (1869)
Stockholm Central Station
The Cygnaeus Gallery Museum (1870)
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
The Mannerheim Museum (1874; 1957 as museum)
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
The Military Museum of Finland (1881)
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
Classical art museum Ateneum (1887)
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The Design Museum (1894)
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
{{ill|Tram Museum|fi|Ratikkamuseo}} (Ratikkamuseo) (1900)
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
The National Museum of Finland (1910)
Uppsala University (established 1477)
The Helsinki City Museum (1911)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Finnish Museum of Natural History (1913)
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Kunsthalle Helsinki art venue (1928)
Didrichsen Art Museum (1964)
Kalmar Cathedral
Helsinki Art Museum (1968)
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
Kiasma museum of contemporary art (1998)
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Amos Rex art museum (2018)
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

- Baltic Sea

According to a theory presented in the 1630s, at the time of Swedish colonisation of coastal areas of Finland, colonists from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived at what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå ("Helsinge River"), which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s.

- Helsinki

They bombarded Sveaborg, which guards Helsinki; and Kronstadt, which guards Saint Petersburg; and they destroyed Bomarsund in Åland.

- Baltic Sea

Owing to the mitigating influence of the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Current (see also Extratropical cyclone), temperatures during the winter are higher than the northern location might suggest, with the average in January and February around -4 C.

- Helsinki

Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.

- Sweden

There are several connections from the Stockholm area across the Sea of Åland to Mariehamn in Åland as well as Turku and Helsinki on the Finnish mainland and beyond to Estonia and St Petersburg in Russia.

- Sweden
Map of the Baltic Sea region

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Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Topographic map of Finland
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
Supply of electricity in Finland
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
Municipalities of Finland:
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland

It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.

Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa.

Commercial contacts in the Baltic Sea region grew and extended during the eighth and ninth centuries.


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Detail of engraving of Stockholm from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna by Erik Dahlbergh and Willem Swidde, printed in 1693
Panorama over Stockholm c. 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon
Stockholm in 1917
Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s
Satellite image of Stockholm in 2018 by ESA
The municipal council chamber (Rådssalen), inside Stockholm City Hall
Victoria Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Stockholm, located in Kista.
Headquarters of Ericsson
Stockholm School of Economics
Strandvägen as seen from the island of Djurgården
Djurgårdsbron bridge
Stockholm Public Library, designed by architect Gunnar Asplund
View of Stockholm from Avicii Arena
Söder Torn, an 86 m building in Södermalm
The main hall of the Vasa Museum with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right
Moragården, one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen open-air museum
Royal Dramatic Theatre, one of Stockholm's many theatres
Bookpublisher, Norstedt Building, seen from Vasabron, in Riddarholmen
Friends Arena
Scenes after Hammarby won their first national bandy title in 2010
Stockholm Marathon, near Kungsträdgården in 2008
Park on the island of Djurgården in central Stockholm
A southbound full-length (3 car) C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan station
An A34 tram on line 7 at Djurgårdsbron
Norra länken (North link) motorway in Stockholm
A control point for the congestion charge leading up to Essingeleden
Viking Grace, one of many cruiseferries on the routes to Finland and Åland
Stockholm Central Station

Stockholm is the capital and largest city of Sweden as well as the largest urban area in Scandinavia.

The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea.

Stockholm has regular ferry lines to Helsinki and Turku in Finland (commonly called "Finlandsfärjan"); Mariehamn, Åland; Tallinn, Estonia; Riga, Latvia, and to Saint Petersburg in Russia.


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City and former capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi) and the former Turku and Pori Province (Turun ja Porin lääni; 1634–1997).

City and former capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi) and the former Turku and Pori Province (Turun ja Porin lääni; 1634–1997).

Turku Cathedral, 1814, prior to the Great Fire in 1827
Great Fire of Turku, a painting by R. W. Ekman
A daguerreotype photograph of the Nobel House, the first photograph taken in Finland, from 1842
Aurakatu area in the 1910s
Aura River seen further away from central Turku
IV District, or Martti, is one of the smallest but most densely populated districts of Turku.
Area of Turku cathedral in autumn.
People celebrating Vappu in central Turku
MS Oasis of the Seas, formerly the world's largest passenger ship, was built in Turku.
Traditional Medieval Market of Turku in summer 2006.
Turku Cathedral, one of the most notable historical buildings in Finland.
Paavo Nurmi Marathon is run every summer.
The Turku Court of Appeal and Academy House of Turku
Turku City Hall, on the west side of the Aura River
Locomotives at Turku Central railway station
Viking Line's M/S Viking Grace on her in the Turku Archipelago.
VR Class Hv1 steam locomotive at Turku railway station in the 1920s
The main building of the University of Turku
Turku Main Library
President Mauno Koivisto

As of 31 March 2021, the population of Turku was 194,244 making it the sixth largest city in Finland after Helsinki, Espoo, Tampere, Vantaa and Oulu.

Turku is the oldest city in Finland, and served as the most important city of the eastern part of the Kingdom of Sweden (modern-day Finland).

Situated by the Baltic Sea and sheltered by the islands of the Archipelago Sea, Turku has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb).


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Largest city in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and lies in the Mecklenburgian part of the state, close to the border with Pomerania.

Largest city in the German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and lies in the Mecklenburgian part of the state, close to the border with Pomerania.

Confirmation of Lübeck law city rights, 1218
Rostock University, the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, founded in 1419.
Rostock in the 16th century
Rostock in the 17th century
Rostock 1780–90
Colourful gabled houses of Rostock
Coat of Arms
Motto: Within your walls may be harmony and happiness
Restored Rostock City Hall, a mixture of Baroque and Brick Gothic architecture.
Geographical position of the Rostock Regiopolis
Aerial view of marina and Yacht Harbour Residence "Hohe Düne" at the Baltic Sea, close to Warnemünde.
Heiligengeisthof (Holy Spirit Courtyard).
Kröpeliner Straße – main shopping street
Alexandrinenstraße in Warnemünde.
Speicher (office buildings) at night. Headquarters of AIDA Cruises.
Historical Botanical Garden of Rostock University, greenhouse
Volkstheater Rostock
Walter Kempowski archives
Ostseestadion, home ground of Hansa Rostock
Rostock Hauptbahnhof (main station)
Transit map of Rostock
Rostock harbour at sunset
Simon Paulli
Albrecht Kossel
Ernst Heinkel
Peter Schulz
Jan Ullrich
Depiction of Rostock in 1845
Rostock bomb damage, 1942
City hall, Market Square after war
Rostock in 2011
The 16th-century Steintor city gate
St. Mary's Church (Marienkirche), 2011
Results of the second round of the 2019 mayoral election.
Winning party by precinct in the 2019 city council election.
Seat distribution in the 2019 city council election.

With around 208,000 inhabitants, it is the third-largest city on the German Baltic coast after Kiel and Lübeck, the eighth-largest city in the area of former East Germany, as well as the 39th-largest city of Germany.

Rostock has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with strong influence of the Baltic Sea, more similar with Denmark and far southern Sweden than to the rest of Germany.

Helsinki, Finland