A report on MaliSahelSahara and Bamako

Camels trample the soil in the semiarid Sahel as they move to water holes, such as this one in Chad
The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew
French Fort of Bammakou, built in 1883
The lush green of the rainy season Sahelian forest, along the Bamako-Kayes Road in Mali. The trees in the foreground are acacia. Note the large baobab tree.
A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area
Pont des Martyrs
The extent of the Mali Empire's peak
Herders with livestock and azawakh dogs in the Sahel
The main biomes in Africa
Niger river
Ennedi Plateau is located at the border of the Sahara and the Sahel
An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.
Hills around Bamako
The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
Fulani herders in Mali
Sand dunes in the Algerian Sahara
Road in Bamako. Kuluba hill, with the Presidential Palace, is in the background.
Griots of Sambala, king of Médina (Fula people, Mali), 1890
1905 depiction of ethnic groups in the Sahel
Sunset in Sahara
Craft sellers set up their wares at the zone artisanal in Bamako city centre.
Cotton being processed in Niono into 400 lb bales for export to other parts of Africa and to France, c. 1950
Vegetation and water bodies in the Eemian (bottom) and Holocene (top)
Cattle crossing a road in Bamako
WWI Commemorative Monument to the "Armée Noire"
Sahel region of Mali
BCEAO tower
Tuareg separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012
The Great Green Wall, participating countries and Sahel. In September 2020, it was reported that the GGW had only covered 4% of the planned area.
Ministry buildings
Members of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People, directory of the ruling junta in Mali
The major topographic features of the Saharan region
People gathered on a Bamako hillside
Satellite image of Mali
Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad
The National Museum of Mali buildings, designed by architect Jean-Loup Pivin
Mali map of Köppen climate classification
An Idehan Ubari oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms
This is a sotrama stand. The sotrama (taxi van) is what is used as public transportation, many being owned independently.
Landscape in Hombori
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Bamako-Sénou International Airport
Ex-Malian Transition President Dioncounda Traoré
Oued Zouzfana and village of Taghit
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Bamako
Former President of Mali Amadou Toumani Touré and Minister-president of the Netherlands Mark Rutte
Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara
Monument de l'hospitalité
A market scene in Djenné
Azalai salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.
Monument des martyrs du 22 mars
A proportional representation of Mali exports, 2019
Market on the main square of Ghardaïa (1971)
Bamako airport road welcome sign
Kalabougou potters
Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria
Place de la liberté
Cotton processing at CMDT
The Tuareg once controlled the central Sahara and its trade.
Al Quoods Monument
GDP per capita development of Mali
The French colonial empire (blue) was the dominant presence in the Sahara
Independence Monument
A Bozo girl in Bamako
A natural rock arch in south western Libya
Hamdallaye obelisk
The Tuareg are historic, nomadic inhabitants of northern Mali.
The Sahara today
Statue of Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes
An entrance to the Djinguereber mosque
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara
Pyramide du souvenir
High school students in Kati
Mémorial Modibo Keita
Village in the Sahel region
Aerial view of neighbourhood ACI 2000
Konoguel Mosque tower
Mali Dogon Dance
Malian children playing football in a Dogon village
Malian tea

The Sahel (ساحل sāḥil, "coast, shore") is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic realm of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian savanna to the south.

- Sahel

Bamako (ߓߡߊ߬ߞߐ߬ Bàmakɔ̌, 𞤄𞤢𞤥𞤢𞤳𞤮 Bamako) is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a 2009 population of 1,810,366 and an estimated 2020 population of 2.71 million.

- Bamako

The Sahel part of Africa includes from west to east parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger and Egypt, the extreme north of Nigeria, Cameroon and Central African Republic, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea and Ethiopia.

- Sahel

Its capital and largest city is Bamako.

- Mali

The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert.

- Mali

To the south it is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of semi-arid tropical savanna around the Niger River valley and the Sudan region of sub-Saharan Africa.

- Sahara

The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia.

- Sahara

The fertile lands of the Niger River Valley provided the people with an abundant food supply and early kingdoms in the area grew wealthy as they established trade routes linking across west Africa, the Sahara, and leading to northern Africa and Europe.

- Bamako

A system of subdivisions often adopted for the Sahelian climate based on annual rainfall is as follows: the Saharan-Sahelian climate, with mean annual precipitation between around 100 and 200 mm (such as Khartoum, Sudan), the strict Sahelian climate, with mean annual precipitation between around 200 and 700 mm (such as Niamey, Niger) and the Sahelian-Sudanese climate, with mean annual precipitation between around 700 and 1,200 mm (such as Bamako, Mali).

- Sahel

Located in the Sudano-Sahelian zone, Bamako is very hot on average all year round with the hottest months being between March and May.

- Bamako

Five terrestrial ecoregions lie within Mali's borders: Sahelian Acacia savanna, West Sudanian savanna, Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna, South Saharan steppe and woodlands, and West Saharan montane xeric woodlands.

- Mali

It established regular air links from Toulouse (HQ of famed Aéropostale), to Oran and over the Hoggar to Timbuktu and West to Bamako and Dakar, as well as trans-Sahara bus services run by La Compagnie Transsaharienne (est.

- Sahara

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1395 map of Africa and Europe

West Africa

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Westernmost region of Africa.

Westernmost region of Africa.

Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1395 map of Africa and Europe
13th-century Africa – Map of the main trade routes and states, kingdoms and empires.
West Africa circa 1875
French in West Africa circa 1913
A rhinoceros in Bandia Nature Reserve, Senegal. Credit: Corine REZEL.
African bush elephants in Yankari National Park, Nigeria
Deforestation in Nigeria.
Satellite imagery from outer space of West Africa
Railway systems in West Africa, 2022
Railway systems in West Africa 2030, projection
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A street and airport in the famous town of Timbuktu, Mali, showing the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style of the West African interior
Philip Emeagwali wearing the Boubou (or Agbada), a traditional robe symbolic of West Africa
Jollof rice or Benachin, one of many Pan–West African dishes found only in West Africa
Supporters of ASEC Mimosas
The talking drum is an instrument unique to West Africa.
Kora-playing griots in Senegal, 1900. Both the Kora, a 21-stringed harp-lute, and the griot musical-caste are unique to West Africa.
The 13th-century Great Mosque of Djenné is a superb example of the indigenous Sahelian architectural style prevalent in the Savannah and Sahelian interior of West Africa. It is listed an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Voodoo altar with several fetishes in Abomey, Benin
Map of petroleum and natural gas within West Africa
Praia, Cape Verde
Dakar, Senegal
Lomé, Togo
Porto-Novo, Benin
Niamey, Niger
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Freetown, Sierra Leone
Banjul, Gambia
Conakry, Guinea
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
Monrovia, Liberia
Bamako, Mali
Georgetown, Ascension Island
Tristan da Cunha, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo, as well as Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom Overseas Territory).

In the United Nations scheme of African regions, the region of Western Africa includes 16 states and the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha: Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal and the Niger are mostly in the Sahel, a transition zone between the Sahara desert and the Sudanian Savanna; Benin, Ivory Coast, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo and Nigeria compose most of Guinea, the traditional name for the area near the Gulf of Guinea; Mauritania lies in the Maghreb, the northwestern region of Africa that has historically been inhabited by West African groups such as the Fulani, Soninke, Wolof, Serer and Toucouleur people, along with Arab-Berber Maghrebi people such as the Tuareg; Cape Verde is an island country in the Atlantic Ocean; and Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha consists of eight main islands located in four different parts of the Atlantic.

Bamako, Mali

Niger River

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Main river of West Africa, extending about 4180 km. Its drainage basin is 2117700 km2 in area.

Main river of West Africa, extending about 4180 km. Its drainage basin is 2117700 km2 in area.

Commercial activity along the river front at Boubon, in Niger
The great bend of the Niger River, seen from space, creates a green arc through the brown of the Sahel and Savanna. The green mass on the left is the Inner Niger Delta, and on the far left are tributaries of the Senegal River.
Mud houses on the center island at Lake Debo, a wide section of the Niger River
Map of the Niger, showing its watershed and "inland delta"
Growing African rice, Oryza glaberrima along the Niger River in Niger. The crop was first domesticated along the river.
A reconstruction of the Ravenna Cosmography placed on a Ptolemaic map. The River Ger is visible at bottom. Note it is placed, following Ptolemy, as just south of the land of the Garamantes, in modern Libya, constricting the continent to the land from the central Sahara north.
1561 map of West Africa by Girolamo Ruscelli, from Italian translation of Ptolemy's Atlas "La Geograpfia Di Claudio Tolomeo Alessandrino, Nouvamente Tradatta Di Greco in Italiano". The writer was attempting to square information gleaned from Portuguese trade along the coast with Ptolemy's world map. The mouths of the Senegal River and Gambia River are postulated to flow into a lake, which also feeds the "Ger"/"Niger River", which in turn feeds the "Nile Lake" and Nile River.

It runs in a crescent shape through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, discharging through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta (or the Oil Rivers), into the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.

Its source (Tembakounda) is 240 km (150 mi) inland from the Atlantic Ocean, but the river runs directly away from the sea into the Sahara Desert, then takes a sharp right turn near the ancient city of Timbuktu and heads southeast to the Gulf of Guinea.

The region of the Niger bend, in the Sahel, was a key origin and destination for trans-Saharan trade, fueling the wealth of great empires such as the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Empires.

Two diversion dams, one at Sotuba just downstream of Bamako, and one at Markala, just downstream of Ségou, are used to irrigate about 54,000 hectares.

Burkina Faso

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West Africa circa 1875
The cavalry of the Mossi Kingdoms were experts at raiding deep into enemy territory, even against the formidable Mali Empire.
Armed men prevent the French explorer Louis-Gustave Binger from entering Sia (Bobo-Dioulasso) during his stay in April 1892.
French West Africa circa 1913
The capital, Ouagadougou, in 1930
Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of Upper Volta, examines documents pertaining to the ratification of the country's independence in 1960
President Blaise Compaoré ruled Burkina Faso from a coup d'état in 1987 until he lost power in 2014.
The National Assembly building in downtown Ouagadougou
Satellite image of Burkina Faso
Map of Burkina Faso
Savannah near the Gbomblora Department, on the road from Gaoua to Batié
Map of Köppen climate classification
Damage caused by the Dourtenga floods in 2007
A proportional representation of Burkina Faso exports, 2019
GDP per capita in Burkina Faso, since 1950
Processing facilities at the Essakane Mine in Burkina Faso
A group of farmers in Tarfila, Burkina Faso
The Grand marché in Koudougou, Burkina Faso
The railway station in Bobo Dioulasso was built during the colonial era and remains in operation.
A Burkinabè Tuareg man in Ouagadougou
The Grand Mosque of Bobo-Dioulasso
The Gando primary school. Its architect, Diébédo Francis Kéré, received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2004.
A masked Winiama dancer, c. 1970
Artisan garland of decorative painted gourds in Ouagadougou
A plate of fufu (right) accompanied with peanut soup
Burkina Faso national football team in white during a match
A cameraman in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2010
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Ouagadougou

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa with an area of 274200 km2, bordered by Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwest.

The colony had its capital in Bamako.

His national agenda also included planting over 10,000,000 trees to halt the growing desertification of the Sahel.

A relatively dry tropical savanna, the Sahel extends beyond the borders of Burkina Faso, from the Horn of Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, and borders the Sahara to its north and the fertile region of the Sudan to the south.