Ban Gu

Ban, Guhis clanPan Ku
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.wikipedia
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Fu (poetry)

fufu'' rhapsodyrhapsody
He also wrote a number of fu, a major literary form, part prose and part poetry, which is particularly associated with the Han era.
Han dynasty historian Ban Gu in the "Monograph on Arts and Letters" defined fu as "to recite without singing" (bù gē ér sòng 不歌而誦).

Book of Han

HanshuHan ShuThe Book of Han
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories. He took over from his father responsibility for writing a history of the former Han Dynasty, a book known in modern times as the Hanshu or Book of Han.
The work was composed by Ban Gu (32–92), a court official, with the help of his sister Ban Zhao, continuing the work of their father, Ban Biao.

Yanmen Pass

YanmenYanmenguan TownshipYanmenguan
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.
By the early Han Dynasty, his clan had grown rich through herding and trading thousands of heads of cattle and horses, to the point that they may have formed a microstate of their own.

Ban Zhao

Ban, ZhaoPan Chao
A few volumes of his book in 13–20th (eight chronological charts) and 26th (astronomical biography), however, was completed by his younger sister, Ban Zhao, and became a model for many other works about later dynasties.
She completed her brother Ban Gu's work on the history of the Western Han, the Book of Han.

Wen Xuan

Selections of Refined Literature'' (''Wen xuan'' 文選)WenxuanNotes on the Anthology of Literature
A number of Ban's fu were collected by Xiao Tong in the Wen Xuan.
Its 55 fu, in particular, are a "remarkably representative selection of major works", and includes most of the greatest fu masterpieces, such as Sima Xiangru's "Fu on the Excursion Hunt of the Emperor" (Tiānzǐ yóuliè fù 天子遊獵賦), Yang Xiong's "Fu on the Sweet Springs Palace" (Gān Quán fù 甘泉賦), Ban Gu's "Fu on the Two Capitals" (Liǎng dū fù 兩都賦), and Zhang Heng's "Fu on the Two Metropolises" (Èr jīng fù 二京賦).

Ban Chao

ambassador Banchao
Ban's twin brother Ban Chao was a famous military leader and explorer of Central Asia.
Three of his family members — father Ban Biao, elder brother Ban Gu, younger sister Ban Zhao — were well known historians who wrote the historical text Book of Han, which recorded the history of the Western Han Dynasty.

Ban Biao

Ban, Biaofather
Ban Gu's great-aunt Consort Ban was a scholar and poet, and his father Ban Biao was a prominent historian.
Ban Biao began the Book of Han, which was completed by his son, Ban Gu and daughter Ban Zhao while their brother Ban Chao was a famous general who contributed his stories to expand the Book of Han.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
He took over from his father responsibility for writing a history of the former Han Dynasty, a book known in modern times as the Hanshu or Book of Han.
110 BC) and his son Sima Qian (145–86 BC) established the standard model for all of imperial China's Standard Histories, such as the Book of Han written by Ban Biao (3–54 AD), his son Ban Gu (32–92 AD), and his daughter Ban Zhao (45–116 AD).

Consort Ban

Lady BanBan Jieyu
Ban Gu's great-aunt Consort Ban was a scholar and poet, and his father Ban Biao was a prominent historian.
He, in turn, had a son and a daughter, Ban Gu and Ban Zhao, who would complete their father's historic work, Book of Han.

Sima Qian

Sima, QianSsu-ma Ch'ienGrand Historian
Ban did not immediately begin an official career, but remained in the Ban family home in Anling to work on the completion of his father's historical sequel to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.
The Chinese historical form of dynasty history, or jizhuanti history of dynasties, was codified in the second dynastic history by Ban Gu's Book of Han, but historians regard Sima's work as their model, which stands as the "official format" of the history of China.

History of geography

geographyHerodotus' time it was not generally known that Africa was surrounded by an ocean ancient geographers
The modern historian Hsu Mei-ling states that Ban Gu's written work in geography set the trend for the establishment of geographical sections of history texts, and most likely sparked the trend of the gazetteer in ancient China.
From the 1st century AD onwards, official Chinese historical texts contained a geographical section, which was often an enormous compilation of changes in place-names and local administrative divisions controlled by the ruling dynasty, descriptions of mountain ranges, river systems, taxable products, etc. The ancient Chinese historian Ban Gu (32–92) most likely started the trend of the gazetteer in China, which became prominent in the Northern and Southern dynasties period and Sui dynasty.

Ban Yong

Ban Yong (, died c. 128 CE), courtesy name Yiliao, was the youngest son of the famous Chinese General, Ban Chao, and the nephew of the illustrious historian, Ban Gu who compiled the Book of Han, the dynastic history of the Former Han dynasty.

Records of the Grand Historian

ShijiShi JiHistorical Records
Ban did not immediately begin an official career, but remained in the Ban family home in Anling to work on the completion of his father's historical sequel to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.
Already in the first century AD, Ban Biao and Ban Gu claimed that ten chapters in Records of the Grand Historian were lacking.

Twenty-Four Histories

Chinese historiesofficial historiesChinese dynastic histories
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.

Emperor He of Han

Emperor HeLiu ZhaoHe
Although Dou won prestige for two successful campaigns against the Xiongnu, in 92 he was suspected by Emperor He of Han of plotting a rebellion and forced to commit suicide.
The chief among them were the historian Ban Gu, who was a chief assistant of Dou Xian and who had apparently been complicit in Dou's autocracy, as well as the commander of the armed forces Song You, although Ban Gu's brother Ban Chao was not affected and continued to enjoy imperial support in his Xiyu (modern Xinjiang and former Soviet central Asia) campaigns.

Dou Xian

Ban later served as a high-ranking literary official under Dou Xian, the brother of Emperor Zhang's empress.
The Inscription of Yanran, composed by Ban Gu and engraved on Mount Yanran to commemorate Dou Xian's victory again the Xiongnu, was recorded in the 5th-century Book of Later Han.

Han poetry

poetry of the Han DynastyHan Dynasty balladsHan dynasty folk ballads
Other Han poets include Sima Xiangru, Ban Gu, and Mi Heng.

Xiongnu

Xiongnu EmpireSouthern XiongnuNorthern Xiongnu
Although Dou won prestige for two successful campaigns against the Xiongnu, in 92 he was suspected by Emperor He of Han of plotting a rebellion and forced to commit suicide.

Xiao Tong

Crown Prince ZhaomingXiao, Tong
A number of Ban's fu were collected by Xiao Tong in the Wen Xuan.

Ancient Chinese states

stateancient Chinese statestates
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.

Chu (state)

ChuState of ChuChu state
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.

Warring States period

Warring StatesWarring States eraChina
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.

Qin Shi Huang

First EmperorYing ZhengQin Shihuang
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional ChineseTraditionalt
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.

Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified ChineseSimplifiedChinese
They lived in the state of Chu during the Warring States Period but, during the reign of the First Emperor, a man named Ban Yi (undefined or, Bān Yī) fled north to the Loufan ( t, s, Lóufán) near the Yanmen Pass in what is now northern Shanxi Province.