Bangladesh

Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

- Bangladesh

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Bengal

The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
On a clear day, the snowy peaks of the Himalayas in Nepal and Sikkim can be seen from northern Bangladesh and Darjeeling district of West Bengal
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A 2015 census of Sundarbans Bengal tigers found 106 in Bangladesh and 76 in West Bengal.
Hindu sculpture, 11th century
Inscriptions on the Adina Mosque proclaim the builder Sikandar Shah as "the wisest, the most just, the most perfect and most liberal of the Sultans of Arabia, Persia and India."
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century.
The Battle of Plassey in 1757 ushered British rule
The former royal palace of Hill Tippera in Agartala
Shaheed Minar in Dhaka commemorates the 1952 Language Movement
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led Bengali's decade long independence struggle including the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971
Bangabhaban (the House of Bengal) is the official residence of the president of Bangladesh
Writers' Building, the official seat of the Government of West Bengal
Biman Bangladesh Airlines is the largest airline based in the Bengal region
The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India
New Mooring Terminal, Port of Chittagong
Aerial view of Haldia port, Haldia Port
The strategically important city of Chittagong is home to the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal
Bengali Letters
A silver coin with Proto-Bengali script, 9th century
Rabindranath Tagore, known as the Bengali Shakespeare, being hosted at the Parliament of Iran in the 1930s
Bangladeshi paintings on sale at an art gallery in Dhaka
Bungalows originated from Bengali architecture
A sculpture on Fazlur Rahman Khan at the Sears Tower in the United States
A Baul musician. The Baul ballads of Bengal are classified by UNESCO as humanity's intangible cultural heritage
18th century painting of a budgerow
A river in Bangladesh
A mustard and date palm farm in West Bengal
A tea garden in Bangladesh
Kanchenjunga from Singalila National Park, West Bengal
Gangaridai in Ptolemy's map, 1st century
The Pala Empire, 9th century
At its greatest extent, the Bengal Sultanate's realm and protectorates stretched from Jaunpur in North India in the west to Tripura and Arakan in the east
The Bengal Sultanate, 16th century
Bengal & Bihar in 1776 by James Rennell
Colonial Bengal, 19th century
Colonial Eastern Bengal and Assam, early 20th century
Province of Bengal (1931)
Map of West Bengal
Map of Bangladesh
Map of Tripura
Flag of Bengal Sultanate
Flag of the Bengal Subah (15-18th Century)
Flag of Bengal Presidency, under British rule
Flag of Bangladesh during Bangladesh Liberation War and after
Flag of Bangladesh from 1972 onwards

Bengal ( বাংলা/বঙ্গ, ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.

Bengali Muslims

Bengali Muslims (বাঙালি মুসলমান; ) are adherents of Islam who ethnically, linguistically and genealogically identify as Bengalis.

Muslim-majority districts of Bengal highlighted in green on a map of 1909
The Mosque City of Bagerhat is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Bengal Sultanate
A manuscript painting from the Bengal Sultanate depicting Alexander the Great in Nizami Ganjavi's Iskandarnama. The manuscript was produced during the reign of Sultan Nusrat Shah.
Pathrail Mosque
Choto Sona Mosque
Ruins of Adina, once the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent
The giraffe gifted by the Sultan of Bengal to China's emperor being presented by a Bengali envoy on 20 September 1414
"People of the Kingdom of Bengal", 16th-century Portuguese illustration
Maritime links of the Bengal Sultanate
A scene from the Gazi scrolls. Pir Gazi was a Sufi preacher. Sufi-led villages were centers of Islamic conversion during the Mughal period.
The Prime Ministers of British Bengal were from the Muslim community of the Bengal Presidency
Awami League leaders Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Tajuddin Ahmad, Syed Nazrul Islam and others in 1970
The award-winning modernist Bait Ur Rouf Mosque
Areas of the Hanafi school are shaded in light green
Ustad Alauddin Khan (centre), one of the greatest maestros of South Asian classical music, performing with his ensemble at Curzon Hall in Dhaka, 1955
Mausoleum of Lalon Shah, a syncretic Baul poet inspired by Sufism
Shaheed Minar (Martyr Monument), at the University of Dhaka in Bangladesh, commemorates those who were killed on 21 February 1952 Bengali Language Movement demonstration.
Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh
A Bengali language Quran. Bengali Muslims are fiercely proud of the indigenous Bengali script. Since the 14th century, Arabic texts were added to Bengali texts as part of the Dobhashi tradition
Hason Raja was a mystic Muslim poet whose songs are widely popular in the region
Baitul Mukarram, the national mosque of Bangladesh and the headquarters of the nation's Islamic Foundation
Muhammad Yunus, winner of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize

Bengali Muslims make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens, and are the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam

Partition of India

The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)
British Indian Empire in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (seated in the carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Congress in which Azad was elected president for the second time
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan centre
The Partition of India: green regions were all part of Pakistan by 1948, and orange ones part of India. The darker-shaded regions represent the Punjab and Bengal provinces partitioned by the Radcliffe Line. The grey areas represent some of the key princely states that were eventually integrated into India or Pakistan.
Mountbatten with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947.
A refugee special train at Ambala Station during the partition of India
A crowd of Muslims at the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi, which had been converted into a vast camp for Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains.

The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India, and the Dominion of Pakistan is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

Indian subcontinent

Physiographical region in Southern Asia.

Due to plate tectonics, the Indian Plate split from Madagascar and collided (c. 55 Mya) with the Eurasian Plate, resulting in the formation of the Himalayas.
The Indus defines much of the ecosystem on the Indian subcontinent
The rocky interiors of the Himalayas

Geopolitically, it includes the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

South Asia

Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Various definitions of South Asia, including the definition by UNSD which was created for "statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."
United Nations cartographic map of South Asia. However, the United Nations does not endorse any definitions or area boundaries.
While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity
Indus Valley Civilisation during 2600–1900 BCE, the mature phase
The Trimurti is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer
Outreach of influence of early medieval Chola dynasty
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-u Din Mehmud, in the winter of 1397–1398
Emperor Shah Jahan and his son Prince Aurangzeb in Mughal Court, 1650
British Indian Empire in 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
South Asia's Köppen climate classification map is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.
Ethno-linguistic distribution map of South Asia
Mumbai is the financial capital of India with GDP of $400 billion
GDP per capita development in South Asia
Durbar High School, oldest secondary school of Nepal, established in 1854 CE
Lower class school in Sri Lanka
College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan
IInstitute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Nepal
Child getting vaccine in Bangladesh under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
A weekly child examination performed at a hospital in Farah, Afghanistan

The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.;

Pundravardhana

The Warrior of Hirschlanden (German: Krieger von Hirschlanden), a statue of a nude ithyphallic warrior made of sandstone, the oldest known Iron Age life-size anthropomorphic statue north of the Alps

Pundravardhana or Pundra Kingdom (Puṇḍravardhana), was an ancient kingdom during the Iron Age period in India with a territory that included parts of present-day Rajshahi and Rangpur Divisions of Bangladesh as well as the West Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India.

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan Plateau in South India.

Delhi Sultanate

Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Map of the Delhi Sultanate at its zenith under the Turko–Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultanate from 1321 to 1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.
Daulatabad Fort in the 1700s
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.
The Mahmud Gawan Madrasah built by the resultant Bahmanid kingdom
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, {{circa|1229}}; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
The Sheesh Gumbad in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Muslim armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref name=eaton200080>Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was destroyed by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.<ref name="SPUday2005">{{cite book |author=S. P. Udayakumar |title=Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XjkEERJrRdwC&pg=PA99 |date=1 January 2005 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-275-97209-7 |pages=99 }}</ref>
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, the military general of Delhi Sultan Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.<ref>History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.; Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, Atlantic, 2009 [p191]</ref>
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.<ref name="Ernst2004p109">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst| title=Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9bNAAQAAIAAJ|year=2004|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-566869-8|page=109}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Sarojini Chaturvedi|title=A short history of South India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qXcwAQAAIAAJ| year=2006|publisher= Saṁskṛiti|isbn=978-81-87374-37-4|page=209}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2015chid">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vyEoAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT155| year=2015|publisher= Penguin Books|isbn=978-93-5118-658-8|pages=155–156}}</ref>
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and again by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.{{sfn|Lal|1950|p=84}}
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.<ref name="Burgess1874">{{cite book|last1=Burgess|last2=Murray|title=Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana|chapter-url=https://archive.org/stream/photographsofarc00murr#page/n17/mode/2up|access-date=23 July 2016|year=1874|publisher=Bourne and Shepherd|page=19|chapter=The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur}}</ref>
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.<ref name="Bradnock2000p959">{{cite book|author1=Robert Bradnock|author2=Roma Bradnock|title=India Handbook|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2hCFDsTbmhoC|year=2000|publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-658-01151-1|page=959}}</ref>

It covered large swathes of territory in modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as well as some parts of southern Nepal.

Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad

The hereditary ruler of Bengal Subah in Mughal India.

Map of Bengal Subah (Red east)
A map of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa under British rule. The map roughly corresponds to the territory of the Nawab of Bengal.
Sketch of the main caravanserai and mosque in Murshidabad
Dutch East India Company ships in Chittagong harbor, early 18th-century
Robert Clive meets Mir Jafar at the Battle of Plassey in 1757
Hazarduari Palace (Palace of a Thousand Doors) was home to the titular Nawabs of Murshidabad

In the early 18th-century, the Nawab of Bengal was the de facto independent ruler of the three regions of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa which constitute the modern-day sovereign country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Bengal Presidency

Subdivision of the British Empire in India.

Map showing the Bengal Presidency's jurisdiction in the 1860s
Jahangir first permitted the East India Company (HEIC) to trade in Bengal
Map showing the Bengal Presidency's jurisdiction in the 1860s
Robert Clive at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, which marked the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daulah
The Impeachment of Warren Hastings
Johnston's Pier, Singapore in 1856
A statue in Calcutta Victoria Memorial of Lord Curzon, who announced the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam on 16 October 1905
In 1911, King George V announced the annulment of the first partition of Bengal and the transfer of British Raj India's capital from Calcutta to New Delhi
Fort William, 1828
Calcutta High Court, 1860s
The Legislative Council met in Calcutta Town Hall
The first elected cabinet of Bengal led by A. K. Fazlul Huq in 1937
The 13th Dalai Lama in Calcutta in 1910
Tomb of Jonathan Henry Lovett (1779–1805), who acted as Bengali ambassador to Qajar Persia.
Statue of Lord William Bentinck in Calcutta Victoria Memorial. As Governor-General, Bentinck made English the medium of instruction in schools and phased out Persian.
Raja Ram Mohun Roy, a native reformer and educationist
Calcutta Port, 1885
Labourers at a jute mill in the Port of Narayanganj, 1906
Lord Dalhousie is credited for developing railways, telegraph and postal services
The certificate of a shareholder in the Bengal Provincial Railway Company Limited
The Viceroy of India arrives in the Port of Dhaka in 1908
Royal Air Force planes in Chittagong Airfield
Bengal Horse Artillery, 1860
Bengal Sappers in Kabul, 1879
The Bengal famine of 1943
Rabindranath Tagore (while in London in 1879) and Kazi Nazrul Islam (while in the British Indian Army in 1917–1920)
The frontpage of Hicky's Bengal Gazette on 29 January 1780
The Company style of Mughal miniatures
Painting by Johann Zoffany of Governor-General Warren Hastings and his wife Marian at their garden in Alipore
Viceroy's Cup Day at the Calcutta Race Course
Bengal Presidency, 1776
Bengal Presidency, 1786
Map showing northern regions of the Presidency in 1858, including princely states of Kashmir, Rajputana Agency, and the Punjab
Map showing growth of British rule in Bengal and Burma
Map denoting Lower Bengal in 1870, including Bengal proper, Orissa, Bihar and Assam; and princely states
Map showing the result of the partition of Bengal in 1905. The western part (Bengal) gained parts of Orissa, while the eastern part (Eastern Bengal and Assam) regained Assam that had been made a separate province in 1874.
Bengal Province in 1931 and adjoining princely states of Hill Tippera and Cooch Behar State
Howrah Bridge in 1945
Victoria Memorial, Kolkata
Writer's Building
Ruplal House
Hardinge Bridge, 1915
Dacca College, 1904
Dacca Madrasa, 1904
Nawab's Shahbagh Garden, 1904
Jahangir first permitted the East India Company (HEIC) to trade in Bengal

Bengal proper covered the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal (present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal).