Banknotes of the pound sterling

banknotesBritish banknotessterling banknotesbanknote£5 notesbank notesfive pound notesfive-pound notenotespound sterling
Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP [Great Britain pound]).wikipedia
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Bank of England

The Bank of EnglandBankAsset Purchase Facility
In most countries of the world the issue of banknotes is handled exclusively by a single central bank or government, but in the United Kingdom seven retail banks have the right to print their own banknotes in addition to the Bank of England; sterling banknote issue is thus not automatically tied in with one national identity or the activity of the state.
The Bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar

Asiatic Banking CorporationBank of Hindustan, China and Japanbanknotes in Hong Kong
The arrangements in the UK are unusual, but comparable systems are used in Hong Kong and Macao, where three and two banks, respectively, issue their own banknotes in addition to their respective governments.
The arrangements in Hong Kong are unusual but not unique, as a comparable system is used in the United Kingdom where seven commercial banks issue banknotes (three in Scotland and four in Northern Ireland) and Macau where two banks issue banknotes.

Jersey

Bailiwick of JerseyIsle of JerseyIsland of Jersey
Sterling banknotes are official currency in the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Tristan da Cunha in St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Jersey issues its own postage stamps and Jersey banknotes and coins that circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey currency within the island.

Bank of Scotland

Union Bank of ScotlandBank of Scotland plcUnion Bank
It was one of the first banks in Europe to print its own banknotes, and it continues to print its own sterling banknotes under legal arrangements that allow Scottish banks to issue currency.

Guernsey pound

GuernseyCoins of the Guernsey poundPound
Since 1921, Guernsey has been in currency union with the United Kingdom and the Guernsey pound is not a separate currency but is a local issue of banknotes and coins denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland (see Banknotes of the pound sterling).

Jersey pound

coins of the Jersey poundJerseypound
Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, and the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland (see Banknotes of the pound sterling).

Royal Bank of Scotland

The Royal Bank of ScotlandRBSRoyal Bank of Scotland plc
George II, George III and George IV appeared on early Royal Bank of Scotland notes and George V appeared on 10 shilling and 1 pound notes issued by the British Treasury between 1914 and 1928.
The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes

Operation Bernhard

combat forgeryBernhardNazi Germany's efforts to counterfeit Allied currency
The Second World War saw a reversal in the trend of warfare creating more notes: to combat forgery, higher denomination notes (some as high as £1,000) were removed from circulation.
Operation Bernhard was an exercise by Nazi Germany to forge British bank notes.

Banking Act 2009

The Banking Act 2009 was passed to improve protection for holders of banknotes issued by the authorised banks, so that the notes would have the same level of guaranteed value to that of Bank of England notes.
Part 6 of the Act specifically deals with the right of certain commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland to issue their own private banknotes, repealing the Bank Notes (Scotland) Act 1845, the Bankers (Ireland) Act 1845 and the Bankers (Northern Ireland) Act 1928.

HM Treasury

TreasuryHer Majesty's Treasurythe Treasury
George II, George III and George IV appeared on early Royal Bank of Scotland notes and George V appeared on 10 shilling and 1 pound notes issued by the British Treasury between 1914 and 1928.
Banknotes in the UK are normally issued by the Bank of England and a number of commercial banks (see Banknotes of the pound sterling).

Crown dependencies

Crown dependencyBritish Crown dependencyBritish Crown Dependencies
The monarch is depicted on banknotes issued by the Crown dependencies and on some of those issued by overseas territories.

Fox, Fowler and Company

bank
The last private English banknotes were issued in 1921 by Fox, Fowler and Company, a Somerset bank.

Walter Scott

Sir Walter ScottScottSir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet
The right of Scottish banks to issue notes is popularly attributed to the author Sir Walter Scott, who in 1826 waged a campaign to retain Scottish banknotes under the pseudonym Malachi Malagrowther.
Scott has been credited with rescuing the Scottish banknote.

Clydesdale Bank

Clydesdale Bank plcClydesdale1997 bank note
The Clydesdale Bank also occasionally issues special edition banknotes, such as a £10 note celebrating the bank's sponsorship of the Scotland team at the 2006 Commonwealth Games
In Scotland, Clydesdale Bank, along with The Royal Bank of Scotland and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes.

Banknotes of the Black Sheep Company of Wales Limited

Banknotes of the Chief Treasury of Wales LimitedBlack Sheep Company of Wales LimitedChief Treasury of Wales Limited
An attempt was made in 1969 by a Welsh banker to revive Welsh banknotes, but the venture was short-lived and the notes did not enter general circulation, surviving today only as a collectors' curiosity.
Although not official legal tender in Wales, they would have enjoyed a similar status to Scottish and Northern Irish banknotes as promissory notes.

Country Bankers Act 1826

Bank Notes Act 1826prohibited the issuance of notes
It relaxed some of the laws of the Bank of England Act 1709, allowing joint-stock banks with more than six partners to issue bank notes, as long as they were located more than 65 mi from London.

Harry Eccleston

Harry Eccleston,Harry Norman Eccleston
The task of designing the new Series D notes was given to the Bank's new in-house designer, Harry Eccleston, who not only designed the notes themselves, but also created three individual portraits of the Queen.
He joined the Bank of England in 1958 as their first in-house artist-designer, and was the designer of the "D" series of British banknotes — the first pictorial notes.

Pound Scots

Scotspounds ScotsScots pound
Until 1701 Scotland issued its own pound, the Pound Scots.

Bank Charter Act 1844

Bank Charter ActBank Charter Act of 18441844 Bank Charter Act
As gold shortages affected the supply of money, note-issuing powers of the banks were gradually restricted by various Acts of Parliament, until the Bank Charter Act 1844 gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.
Today three commercial banks in Scotland and four in Northern Ireland continue to issue their own sterling banknotes, regulated by the Bank of England.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
The Series D £1 note, featuring Sir Isaac Newton, was discontinued in 1984, having been replaced by a pound coin the year before, and was officially withdrawn from circulation in 1988.
From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England).

Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll

Lord IlayArchibald Campbell, 1st Earl of IlayDuke of Argyll
On the front of each note is a picture of Lord Ilay (1682–1761), the first governor of the bank, based on a portrait painted in 1744 by the Edinburgh artist Allan Ramsay.
His portrait has appeared on the front of all Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes, and as a watermark on the notes, since they were redesigned in 1987.

One pound (British coin)

one pound coin£1 coinpound coin
The Series D £1 note, featuring Sir Isaac Newton, was discontinued in 1984, having been replaced by a pound coin the year before, and was officially withdrawn from circulation in 1988.

Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher WrenWrenWren-Gibbs
Christopher Wren appeared on the reverse of the first British £50 banknote (Series D) issued in modern time.

Edward Elgar

ElgarSir Edward ElgarElgar, Edward
From 1999 until early 2007, new Bank of England twenty pound notes featured a portrait of Elgar.

Girona (ship)

GironaLa GironaThe Girona
The wrecking of La Girona is officially commemorated with a period illustration on the reverse side of sterling banknotes issued by the First Trust Bank in Northern Ireland.