Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalgoofballssleeping pillsbarbiturate overdosebarbituricbarbituric acid derivativedownersgoof ballssleeping pill
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.wikipedia
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Barbiturate overdose

overdose of barbituratesbarbiturate poisoningacute barbiturate poisoning
They have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, due to the significantly lower risk of addiction and overdose and the lack of an antidote for barbiturate overdose.
Barbiturate overdose is poisoning due to excessive doses of barbiturates.

Primidone

However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., sodium thiopental).
Primidone (INN, BAN, USP) is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class.

Lethal injection

Executed by lethal injectionlethal injectionsdeath by lethal injection
Barbiturates in high doses are used for physician-assisted suicide, and in combination with a muscle relaxant for euthanasia and for capital punishment by lethal injection.
Lethal injection is the practice of injecting one or more drugs into a person (typically a barbiturate, paralytic, and potassium solution) for the express purpose of causing immediate death.

Phenobarbital

phenobarbitoneLuminalphenobarbitol
However, barbiturates are still used as anticonvulsants (e.g., phenobarbital and primidone) and general anesthetics (e.g., sodium thiopental). Barbiturates such as phenobarbital were long used as anxiolytics and hypnotics, but today have been largely replaced by benzodiazepines for these purposes because the latter are less toxic in overdose.
Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that works by increasing the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Barbiturates such as phenobarbital were long used as anxiolytics and hypnotics, but today have been largely replaced by benzodiazepines for these purposes because the latter are less toxic in overdose. Barbiturates are effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants, but have physical and psychological addiction potential.
Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fallen out of use in most practices but are still prescribed for some patients.

Barbituric acid

1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid
The name barbiturate originates from the fact that they are all chemical derivatives of barbituric acid.
Barbituric acid is the parent compound of barbiturate drugs, although barbituric acid itself is not pharmacologically active.

Medication

pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalsdrug
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics, antipsychotics, eugeroics, antidepressants (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, Anticonvulsants/antiepileptics, anxiolytics, barbiturates, movement disorder (e.g., Parkinson's disease) drugs, stimulants (including amphetamines), benzodiazepines, cyclopyrrolones, dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, cholinergics, anticholinergics, emetics, cannabinoids, and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists.

Anxiolytic

anti-anxietyanxiolysisanxiolytics
Barbiturates such as phenobarbital were long used as anxiolytics and hypnotics, but today have been largely replaced by benzodiazepines for these purposes because the latter are less toxic in overdose. Barbiturates are effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants, but have physical and psychological addiction potential.
There are concerns that some GABAergics, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates, may have an anxiogenic effect if used over long periods of time.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapines1,4-benzodiazepine
They have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, due to the significantly lower risk of addiction and overdose and the lack of an antidote for barbiturate overdose. Barbiturates such as phenobarbital were long used as anxiolytics and hypnotics, but today have been largely replaced by benzodiazepines for these purposes because the latter are less toxic in overdose.
However, they are less toxic than their predecessors, the barbiturates, and death rarely results when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken.

Carisoprodol

Somasomas
This can result in fatal overdoses from drugs such as codeine, tramadol, and carisoprodol, which become considerably more potent after being metabolized by CYP enzymes.
It is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant of the carbamate class and produces all the effects associated with barbiturates.

Delirium tremens

delerium tremensalcohol withdrawal deliriumDT
As with all GABAergic drugs, barbiturate withdrawal produces potentially fatal effects such as seizures in a manner reminiscent of delirium tremens and benzodiazepine withdrawal although its more direct mechanism of GABA agonism makes barbiturate withdrawal even more severe than that of alcohol or benzodiazepines (subsequently making it one of the most dangerous withdrawals of any known addictive substance).
A similar syndrome may occur with benzodiazepine and barbiturate withdrawal.

Lupe Vélez

Mexican SpitfireGuadalupe Villalobos VélezLupe '''Vélez
People who are known to have killed themselves with a barbiturate overdose include Charles Boyer, Dalida, Phyllis Hyman, Lupe Velez, Carole Landis, Jean Seberg, Abbie Hoffman, Felix Hausdorff and C. P. Ramanujam.
In December 1944, Vélez died of an intentional overdose of the barbiturate drug Seconal.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
Barbiturates in high doses are used for physician-assisted suicide, and in combination with a muscle relaxant for euthanasia and for capital punishment by lethal injection.
Other skeletal muscle relaxants of that type used around the world come from a number of drug categories and other drugs used primarily for this indication include orphenadrine (anticholinergic), chlorzoxazone, tizanidine (clonidine relative), diazepam, tetrazepam and other benzodiazepines, mephenoxalone, methocarbamol, dantrolene, baclofen, Drugs once but no longer or very rarely used to relax skeletal muscles include meprobamate, barbiturates, methaqualone, glutethimide and the like; some subcategories of opioids have muscle relaxant properties, and some are marketed in combination drugs with skeletal and/or smooth muscle relaxants such as whole opium products, some ketobemidone, piritramide and fentanyl preparations and Equagesic.

Truth serum

truth drugnarcoanalysisnarco analysis
It is often mistaken for "truth serum", or sodium amytal, an intermediate-acting barbiturate that is used for sedation and to treat insomnia, but was also used in so-called sodium amytal "interviews" where the person being questioned would be much more likely to provide the truth whilst under the influence of this drug.
Sedatives or hypnotics that alter higher cognitive function include ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, potent short or intermediate acting hypnotic benzodiazepines such as midazolam, flunitrazepam, and various short and ultra-short acting barbiturates, including sodium thiopental (commonly known by the brand name Pentothal) and amobarbital (formerly known as sodium amytal).

Stevens–Johnson syndrome

Stevens-Johnson syndromeStevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap syndromeStevens- Johnson syndrome
A rare adverse reaction to barbiturates is Stevens-Johnson syndrome, which primarily affects the mucous membranes.
SJS may be caused by adverse effects of the drugs vancomycin, allopurinol, valproate, levofloxacin, diclofenac, etravirine, isotretinoin, fluconazole, valdecoxib, sitagliptin, oseltamivir, penicillins, barbiturates, sulfonamides, phenytoin, azithromycin, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, modafinil, lamotrigine, nevirapine, pyrimethamine, ibuprofen, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, bupropion, telaprevir, and nystatin.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
However, they are much less toxic than their predecessors, the barbiturates, and death rarely results when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken; however, when combined with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol and opiates, the potential for toxicity and fatal overdose increases.

Jimi Hendrix

HendrixJimiHendrix-y
Others who have died as a result of barbiturate overdose include Judy Garland, Marilyn Monroe, Ellen Wilkinson, Dorothy Kilgallen, Pier Angeli, Brian Epstein, Alan Wilson, Jimi Hendrix, Thalia Massie, Edie Sedgwick, Inger Stevens and Kenneth Williams; in some cases these have been speculated to be suicides as well.
The world's highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970, before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27.

Marilyn Monroe

MarilynMonroeM. Monroe
Others who have died as a result of barbiturate overdose include Judy Garland, Marilyn Monroe, Ellen Wilkinson, Dorothy Kilgallen, Pier Angeli, Brian Epstein, Alan Wilson, Jimi Hendrix, Thalia Massie, Edie Sedgwick, Inger Stevens and Kenneth Williams; in some cases these have been speculated to be suicides as well.
On August 5, 1962, she died at age 36 from an overdose of barbiturates at her home in Los Angeles.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
As with all GABAergic drugs, barbiturate withdrawal produces potentially fatal effects such as seizures in a manner reminiscent of delirium tremens and benzodiazepine withdrawal although its more direct mechanism of GABA agonism makes barbiturate withdrawal even more severe than that of alcohol or benzodiazepines (subsequently making it one of the most dangerous withdrawals of any known addictive substance).
Barbiturates are cross tolerant to benzodiazepines and should generally be avoided; however phenobarbital can be used, as it is relatively safe, see below.

Judy Garland

GarlandDorothyEthel Gumm
Others who have died as a result of barbiturate overdose include Judy Garland, Marilyn Monroe, Ellen Wilkinson, Dorothy Kilgallen, Pier Angeli, Brian Epstein, Alan Wilson, Jimi Hendrix, Thalia Massie, Edie Sedgwick, Inger Stevens and Kenneth Williams; in some cases these have been speculated to be suicides as well.
They were also given barbiturates to take before going to bed so they could sleep.

GABAA receptor

GABA A receptorGABA A GABA A receptors
Barbiturates act as positive allosteric modulators, and at higher doses, as agonists of GABA A receptors.
These allosteric sites are the targets of various other drugs, including the benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids, barbiturates, alcohol (ethanol), inhaled anaesthetics, and picrotoxin, among others.

Ingeborg Bachmann

Bachmann
Ingeborg Bachmann may have died of the consequences of barbiturate withdrawal (she was hospitalized with burns, the doctors treating her not being aware of her Barbiturate addiction).
During her stay, she experienced withdrawal symptoms complicated from barbiturate substance abuse.

Migraine

migrainesmigraine headachemigraine headaches
Despite this, barbiturates are still in use for various purposes: in general anesthesia, epilepsy, treatment of acute migraines or cluster headaches, euthanasia, capital punishment, and assisted suicide.
It is recommended that opioids and barbiturates not be used due to questionable efficacy, addictive potential, and the risk of rebound headache.

Barbital

veronalbarbitonesodium barbitone
No substance of medical value was discovered, however, until 1903 when two German scientists working at Bayer, Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, discovered that barbital was very effective in putting dogs to sleep.
Barbital (or barbitone), marketed under the brand names Veronal for the pure acid and Medinal for the sodium salt, was the first commercially available barbiturate.

Inger Stevens

Others who have died as a result of barbiturate overdose include Judy Garland, Marilyn Monroe, Ellen Wilkinson, Dorothy Kilgallen, Pier Angeli, Brian Epstein, Alan Wilson, Jimi Hendrix, Thalia Massie, Edie Sedgwick, Inger Stevens and Kenneth Williams; in some cases these have been speculated to be suicides as well.
Los Angeles County Coroner Dr. Thomas Noguchi attributed Stevens's death to "acute barbiturate poisoning."