Barding

A museum display of a sixteenth-century knight with a horse in full barding
Chinese Song dynasty lamellar horse barding as illustrated on Wujing Zongyao
Chanfron, Gaya confederacy
A chanfron made in Italy in the early 16th century
A set of armour with a criniere (protecting neck), peytral (protecting chest) and the croupiere (protecting hind quarters). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.
Peytral with decorative openings, early 16th century, Germany
This 15th-century depiction of a tournament shows fully caparisoned horses, from Le Livre des tournois by Barthélemy d'Eyck.

Body armour for war horses.

- Barding
A museum display of a sixteenth-century knight with a horse in full barding

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United States Marines in July 2010 assist a Sri Lanka Navy sailor in trying on a Modular Tactical Vest.

Body armor

Protective clothing designed to absorb or deflect physical attacks.

Protective clothing designed to absorb or deflect physical attacks.

United States Marines in July 2010 assist a Sri Lanka Navy sailor in trying on a Modular Tactical Vest.
Japanese warrior in armor
Greek Mycenaean armor, c. 1400 BC
Bronze lamellae, Vietnam, 300 BC – 100 BC
Turkish plated mail
Signature Maratha helmet with curved back, side view
Renaissance/Early Modern suits of armor appropriate for heavy cavalry
French cuirassier of the 19th century (Drawing by Édouard Detaille, 1885)
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An American police officer in October 2002 wears a helmet while equipped with a riot shield.
United States Navy sailors in 2007 wearing Lightweight Helmets and Modular Tactical Vests equipped with neck and groin armor

The horse was afforded protection from lances and infantry weapons by steel plate barding.

Western-style cowboy spurs with rowels, chap guards and buttons for the spur straps

Spur

Metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse or other animal to move forward or laterally while riding.

Metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse or other animal to move forward or laterally while riding.

Western-style cowboy spurs with rowels, chap guards and buttons for the spur straps
Parts of a simple spur
Spur straps on an English "Prince of Wales" spur
"Rowel spur", circa 1400 Metropolitan Museum of Art
Western spur rowel with jingo bobs
Boot with spur, 19th century
English riding spur
Motorcycle spurs from Loop Spurs
A pair of barrel-racing spurs with unique nonrowel design
Prince of Wales
Disc
Swan neck, rowels
Waterford spur

Though sometimes it has been claimed that the design changes were used because of barding, the use of barding had fallen out of fashion by the time the most elaborate spur designs were created.

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Plate armour

Historical type of personal body armour made from bronze, iron, or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer.

Historical type of personal body armour made from bronze, iron, or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer.

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Bronze muscle cuirass, Italy, c. 350–300 BC
A Japanese 16th–17th century suit of plate armour with a western-style cuirass (nanban dō gosoku)
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Royal Armoury of Madrid, Spain
15th-century depiction of a melee. A breast plate is pierced by a sword
The Stechzeug of John the Constant (c. 1500)
a portrait
a later painting
Suit of armor of the Italian condottiero Roberto Sanseverino d'Aragona
Painting of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz (c. 1605), after an original by Titian, depicting an elaborate Renaissance-era suit of armour.
Parade armor from 1562, belonged to Erik XIV of Sweden. Made by Eliseus Libaerts and Etienne Delaune.
Stechzeug; note that the parts protecting the lower body and the legs were incorporated as part of the horse armour (not shown).
Rennzeug
Armour designed for the Kolbenturnier, dated to the 1480s. The Kolbenturnier was a late form of the tournament, unlike the joust played with two teams using wooden clubs (Kolben) to hit opponents' helmet crests.
Savoyard munition armour, c. 1600
Christian the Younger of Brunswick wearing cuirassier armour (1620)
Portrait of Charles III of Spain in a suit of armour (1761).
French cuirassier armour (1854).
German body armour (Sappenpanzer; 1918)
American cuirass of WWI after fire testing

Gradually the number of plate components of medieval armour increased, protecting further areas of the body, and in barding those of a cavalryman's horse.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

Knight

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
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Other armors such as the facial armoring chanfron, were made for horses.

The Dukes of Brittany (left) and Bourbon on caparisoned horses at a tournament fight (1460s), from Le Livre des tournois by Barthélemy d'Eyck

Caparison

Cloth covering laid over a horse or other animal for protection and decoration.

Cloth covering laid over a horse or other animal for protection and decoration.

The Dukes of Brittany (left) and Bourbon on caparisoned horses at a tournament fight (1460s), from Le Livre des tournois by Barthélemy d'Eyck
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In the Middle Ages, caparisons were part of the horse armour known as barding, which was worn during battle and tournaments.

Case for a book, with fittings for a carrying-cord, 15th century. The coat of arms (on the other side) suggests it was made for a bishop.

Boiled leather

Historical material common in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period and used for various purposes.

Historical material common in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period and used for various purposes.

Case for a book, with fittings for a carrying-cord, 15th century. The coat of arms (on the other side) suggests it was made for a bishop.
German pickelhaube, c. 1860
Crupper plate for horse armour, 16th century, north Europe
Design for cuir bouilli armour for tournaments, from Le Livre des tournois, 1460s
Portable Reliquary Case, French, c. 1400, 12.6 cm long
Late 15th-century box, 4 x 12 x 7.4 cm, Italian. The interior is painted.
Box, probably for ink powder, 15th-century Italian, textile interior and wood core
Book case, 15th-century Italian
Etui "with an amorous inscription", 1450–1500, Italian, 21 cm long
Detail of last. This piece has a wooden core.
French miner's hat, after 1840
Hunting Knife, Sharpener, and Sheath. French, c. 1880, as a fake 15th-century set.
Braunschweigisches Husaren-Regiment Nr. 17, Death's Head pickelhaube
German fireman's helmet; designed for fire situations involving electricity

In the Late Middle Ages, the heyday of plate armour, cuir bouilli continued to be used even by the rich for horse armour and often for tournament armour, as well as by ordinary infantry soldiers.

Kumihimo braid

Kumihimo

Traditional Japanese artform of making braids and cords.

Traditional Japanese artform of making braids and cords.

Kumihimo braid
A marudai stand featuring a partially finished kumihimo, weighted with a tama (lit., "egg") weight to keep tension whilst weaving

The most prominent historical use of kumihimo was by samurai, as a functional and decorative way to lace their lamellar armour and their horses' armor (barding).

Sculpted image of a Sarmatian (an Iazyx would look similar) from the Casa degli Omenoni.

Iazyges

Ancient Sarmatian tribe that traveled westward in c. 200BC from Central Asia to the steppes of modern Ukraine.

Ancient Sarmatian tribe that traveled westward in c. 200BC from Central Asia to the steppes of modern Ukraine.

Sculpted image of a Sarmatian (an Iazyx would look similar) from the Casa degli Omenoni.
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138), showing the location of the Iazyges in the plain of the Tisza river.
The Ninth European Map (in two parts) from a 15th-century Greek manuscript edition of Ptolemy's Geography, showing the Wandering Iazyges in the northwest between Pannonia and Dacia.
Illustration of several Iazygian grave sites.
An illustration of several Iazygian barrel-shaped pots which have been discovered.
Location of the Iazyges (J) before they moved westward.
Roman Balkans in the 1st century AD with the Jazyges Metanastæ between Roman Pannonia and Dacia.
Map showing Iazyges in AD 125 west of Roman Dacia
Roman cavalry (left) fighting Sarmatian cavalry (right).
The Limes (Devil's Dykes) built between Roman territory and the tribes (contours around Iazyges' territory).
The 174-175 Roman offensive onto Iazigi
The land of the Iazyges in the 2nd–3rd century.
Iazyges in the 4th century at left bank of Danube (Gepids, Hasdingi), neighboring Gotini are replaced with Suebic Quadi

They used long, two-handed lances called Contus; they wielded these from horses, which they barded.

Renaissance-era depiction of a joust in traditional or "high" armour, based on then-historical late medieval armour (Paulus Hector Mair, de arte athletica, 1540s)

Jousting

Martial game or hastilude between two horse riders wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament.

Martial game or hastilude between two horse riders wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament.

Renaissance-era depiction of a joust in traditional or "high" armour, based on then-historical late medieval armour (Paulus Hector Mair, de arte athletica, 1540s)
Depiction of a late 13th-century joust in the Codex Manesse. Joust by Walther von Klingen.
Depiction of a standing joust in an Alsatian manuscript of ca. 1420 (CPG 359); protection for the legs of the riders is integrated into the horse armour.
The Stechzeug of John the Constant (c. 1500). The shield strapped to his left shoulder is called an ecranche.
Jousting at Middelaldercentret
Armor of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1549
Parade Armour of Henry II of France, c. 1553-55
Armour for King Henry VIII by Matthew Bisanz, 1544
Armour worn by King Henry VIII

The Stechzeug in particular developed into extremely heavy armour which completely inhibited the movement of the rider, in its latest forms resembling an armour-shaped cabin integrated into the horse armour more than a functional suit of armour.

German man-at-arms 1498 by Albrecht Dürer. The equipment is that of a demi-lancer.

Man-at-arms

Soldier of the High Medieval to Renaissance periods who was typically well-versed in the use of arms and served as a fully armoured heavy cavalryman.

Soldier of the High Medieval to Renaissance periods who was typically well-versed in the use of arms and served as a fully armoured heavy cavalryman.

German man-at-arms 1498 by Albrecht Dürer. The equipment is that of a demi-lancer.
Armour of an early 16th-century man-at-arms
English man-at-arms, funerary brass c. 1431
Fully armoured gendarmes from the Italian Wars (mid 16th century).
Armour for man-at-arms and fully barded horse, Royal Armory of Madrid

As early as the late 13th century, Edward I decreed that all his men-at-arms should be mounted on equus coopertus, that is armoured, or barded, horses.