Marathon runners at Carlsbad Marathon, USA, 2013
Women jogging along Morro Strand State Beach, California, U.S.
Computer simulation of a human walk cycle. In this model the head keeps the same level at all times, whereas the hip follows a sine curve.
Humans using a running gait. The runner in the back and on the far right are in the suspended phase, in which neither foot touches the ground.
Barefoot person leaving footprints behind.
A scene depicting long-distance runners, originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 333 BCE
Jogging track in Hong Kong
Racewalkers at the World Cup Trials in 1987
Barefoot woman wearing cultural anklet, denoting her marital status in traditional Indian culture
Ancient Roman bronze sculptures of runners from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum
A detail of an ancient mosaic depicting a young woman who jogs with dumbbells, fourth century AD
Nordic walkers
Hans Thoma Kinderreigen, 1872
Eadweard Muybridge photo sequence
Säpojoggen jogging event in Sweden
Free heels are a defining characteristic of ski touring
Ancient Olympic discus thrower
Person with a bad running form. Heel striking and leaning forward are some of the most common mistakes and cause of injuries among beginners.
Human Walking Cycle
Barefoot girl in Udaipur, India
Chafing of skin following a marathon run
Hiking with full packs.
Barefoot prisoner of the inquisition, Edouard Moyse L'inquisition
Maximum human speed [km/h] and pace [min/km] per distance
Gauchetière Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Demonstration of "bastinado"
A man running with a baton during a relay race.
Two king penguins and one gentoo penguin walking on a beach on South Georgia, British overseas territory
Dancer Isadora Duncan performing barefoot during her 1915–18 American tour
International-level women athletes competing in 100 m sprint race at ISTAF Berlin, 2006
The walk, a four-beat gait
Singer Joss Stone performing barefoot on stage
An Asian elephant walking
(Left–B) plaster cast of an adult foot that has never worn shoes displaying natural splayed toes (Right–A) cast of boy showing damage and inward-turned toes after wearing shoes for only a few weeks
A barefoot woman in a dance studio
A barefoot skier

Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace.

- Jogging

The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running but more than walking, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time.

- Jogging

Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits.

- Walking

This is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept mostly straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion.

- Running

The term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting.

- Running

Pedestrianism is a sport that developed during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and was a popular spectator sport in the British Isles. By the end of the 18th century, and especially with the growth of the popular press, feats of foot travel over great distances (similar to a modern ultramarathon) gained attention, and were labeled "pedestrianism". Interest in the sport, and the wagering which accompanied it, spread to the United States, Canada, and Australia in the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, Pedestrianism was largely displaced by the rise in modern spectator sports and by controversy involving rules, which limited its appeal as a source of wagering and led to its inclusion in the amateur athletics movement. Pedestrianism was first codified in the last half of the 19th century, evolving into what would become racewalking, By the mid 19th century, competitors were often expected to extend their legs straight at least once in their stride, and obey what was called the "fair heel and toe" rule. This rule, the source of modern racewalking, was a vague commandment that the toe of one foot could not leave the ground before the heel of the next foot touched down. This said, rules were customary and changed with the competition. Racers were usually allowed to jog in order to fend off cramps, and it was distance, not code, which determined gait for longer races. Newspaper reports suggest that "trotting" was common in events.

- Walking

The so-called natural gaits, in increasing order of speed, are the walk, jog, skip, run, and sprint.

- Gait (human)

There is evidence that wearing traditional shoes while running leads to heel strike gait that, in turn, leads to higher impact as well as a greater risk of injury.

- Barefoot

500 related topics



Minimalist running shoe company.

Their technology, invented by Tim Brennan and developed by British shoe company Terra Plana, is aimed at offering the optimum biomechanics and posture commonly associated with walking barefoot and barefoot running, and advocated within the barefoot movement and barefoot running community.


Hamboards manufactures and sells rail-to-rail Surfskates, SUPskates, Paddles and Accessories.

Barefoot person leaving footprints behind.

Hamboards are intended to be ridden barefoot, like surfboards.

Limb (anatomy)

Diagram of a typical synovial joint

A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed bodily appendage that humans and many other animals use for locomotion such as walking, running and swimming, or for prehensile grasping or climbing.

Plantar fascia

Thick connective tissue which supports the arch on the bottom (plantar side) of the foot.

Muscles of the sole of the foot. First layer (closest to the skin on the sole of the foot). Plantar aponeurosis visible at top center.
Anatomical diagrams illustrating the components of the plantar fascia.
Dissection of the plantar aponeurosis: LP, lateral part; CP, central part; MP, medial part; L, length; W, width.
Five central part plantar aponeurosis bundles.
The effect of dorsiflexing the toes on arch height (A). The windlass mechanism (B).
The plantar fascia (also known as the plantar aponeurosis) is located superficially plantar side of the foot.

The plantar fascia also has an important role in dynamic function during gait.

Vibram FiveFingers

Vibram FiveFingers are a type of minimalist shoe manufactured by Vibram, originally marketed as a more natural alternative for outdoor activities (sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and as a camp or after-hike shoe).

Vibram FiveFingers shoes, 2010
FiveFingers KSO Trek
FiveFingers Spyridon LS
FiveFingers Bikila
FiveFingers with toe socks
Trail vibram shoes after a muddy run.
Close view of the soles.

In a report on an article in Nature, co-author Daniel E. Lieberman (whose research was partially funded by Vibram) stated that "People who wear conventional running shoes tend to run with a significantly different strike than those who run in minimalist shoes or barefoot. More specifically, the ball of the foot should strike the ground before the heel when running (or walking) barefoot or in minimalist shoes. By landing on the middle or front of the foot, barefoot runners have almost no impact collision."

Aerobic exercise

Physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

A step aerobics exercise instructor in the United States Army motivates her class to keep up the pace.
Cardio and muscle endurance exercise session using plastic steps or platforms
Fox and Haskell formula shows the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate

Examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium- to long-distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, stair climbing and walking.


Long-distance discipline within the sport of athletics.

Racewalkers at the U.S. World Cup Trials in 1987
Men's 20-km walk during the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki, Finland. The walker at the right appears to be illegal in that both feet are off the ground, but according to the current rules, an infraction is only committed when the loss of contact is visible to the human eye.
Shaul Ladany (centre), in 1969
A racewalker "flying" (entirely out of contact with the ground, a rule violation)
The start of the 3500 m walk final, 1908 Olympics

Although a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times.

The sport emerged from a British culture of long-distance competitive walking known as pedestrianism, which began to develop the ruleset that is the basis of the modern discipline around the mid-19th century.

Sport of athletics

A copy of the Ancient Greek statue Discobolus, portraying a discus thrower
A typical track and field stadium with an oval running track and a grassy inner field
International level women athletes at ISTAF Berlin, 2006
Runners in the popular National Marathon race in Washington, D.C.
Competitors mid-race at a boys high school event in the United States
A track-side judge monitoring technique at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden.
Foekje Dillema was banned from the women's division in 1950
Masters marathon runner Fauja Singh
Competitor in a wheelchair race at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.
A typical layout of an outdoor track and field stadium
A cross country race taking place at a snowy park in the United States.
A typical road running course on the inner-city roads of Toronto
Map of the six continental federations of World Athletics
Men's 1,500-metre Running during the 2018 IAAF World U20 Championships at the Ratina Stadium in Tampere, Finland
The athletics competition underway at the main stadium of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Ancient Greek pottery showing the javelin and the discus throw

Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.

Animal locomotion

Any of a variety of methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

A beetle larva performing a rectilinear locomotion.
Dolphins surfing
Scallop in jumping motion; these bivalves can also swim.
Velella moves by sailing.
A pair of brimstone butterflies in flight. The female, above, is in fast forward flight with a small angle of attack; the male, below, is twisting his wings sharply upward to gain lift and fly up towards the female.
Flying fish taking off
Gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in mid-leap
Leech moving by looping using its front and back suckers
Animation of a Devonian tetrapod
A brachiating gibbon
Physalia physalis
Some remoras, such as this Echeneis naucrates, may attach themselves to scuba divers.
Pacific white-sided dolphins porpoising

Humans are bipedal animals, standing on two feet and keeping one on the ground at all times while walking.

When running, only one foot is on the ground at any one time at most, and both leave the ground briefly.


Elephant walking
Gait graphs in the style of Hildebrand. Dark areas indicate times of contact, bottom axis is % of cycle
Bison galloping

Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.