Marathon runners at Carlsbad Marathon, USA, 2013
Women jogging along Morro Strand State Beach, California, U.S.
Computer simulation of a human walk cycle. In this model the head keeps the same level at all times, whereas the hip follows a sine curve.
Humans using a running gait. The runner in the back and on the far right are in the suspended phase, in which neither foot touches the ground.
Barefoot person leaving footprints behind.
A scene depicting long-distance runners, originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 333 BCE
Jogging track in Hong Kong
Racewalkers at the World Cup Trials in 1987
Barefoot woman wearing cultural anklet, denoting her marital status in traditional Indian culture
Ancient Roman bronze sculptures of runners from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum
A detail of an ancient mosaic depicting a young woman who jogs with dumbbells, fourth century AD
Nordic walkers
Hans Thoma Kinderreigen, 1872
Eadweard Muybridge photo sequence
Säpojoggen jogging event in Sweden
Free heels are a defining characteristic of ski touring
Ancient Olympic discus thrower
Person with a bad running form. Heel striking and leaning forward are some of the most common mistakes and cause of injuries among beginners.
Human Walking Cycle
Barefoot girl in Udaipur, India
Chafing of skin following a marathon run
Hiking with full packs.
Barefoot prisoner of the inquisition, Edouard Moyse L'inquisition
Maximum human speed [km/h] and pace [min/km] per distance
Gauchetière Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Demonstration of "bastinado"
A man running with a baton during a relay race.
Two king penguins and one gentoo penguin walking on a beach on South Georgia, British overseas territory
Dancer Isadora Duncan performing barefoot during her 1915–18 American tour
International-level women athletes competing in 100 m sprint race at ISTAF Berlin, 2006
The walk, a four-beat gait
Singer Joss Stone performing barefoot on stage
An Asian elephant walking
(Left–B) plaster cast of an adult foot that has never worn shoes displaying natural splayed toes (Right–A) cast of boy showing damage and inward-turned toes after wearing shoes for only a few weeks
A barefoot woman in a dance studio
A barefoot skier

Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace.

- Jogging

The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running but more than walking, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time.

- Jogging

Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits.

- Walking

This is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept mostly straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion.

- Running

The term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting.

- Running

Pedestrianism is a sport that developed during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and was a popular spectator sport in the British Isles. By the end of the 18th century, and especially with the growth of the popular press, feats of foot travel over great distances (similar to a modern ultramarathon) gained attention, and were labeled "pedestrianism". Interest in the sport, and the wagering which accompanied it, spread to the United States, Canada, and Australia in the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, Pedestrianism was largely displaced by the rise in modern spectator sports and by controversy involving rules, which limited its appeal as a source of wagering and led to its inclusion in the amateur athletics movement. Pedestrianism was first codified in the last half of the 19th century, evolving into what would become racewalking, By the mid 19th century, competitors were often expected to extend their legs straight at least once in their stride, and obey what was called the "fair heel and toe" rule. This rule, the source of modern racewalking, was a vague commandment that the toe of one foot could not leave the ground before the heel of the next foot touched down. This said, rules were customary and changed with the competition. Racers were usually allowed to jog in order to fend off cramps, and it was distance, not code, which determined gait for longer races. Newspaper reports suggest that "trotting" was common in events.

- Walking

The so-called natural gaits, in increasing order of speed, are the walk, jog, skip, run, and sprint.

- Gait (human)

There is evidence that wearing traditional shoes while running leads to heel strike gait that, in turn, leads to higher impact as well as a greater risk of injury.

- Barefoot

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Any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

Running in water (aquarunning)
Weight training
An aerobics exercise instructor instructs her class to keep up the pace in the United States.
Summary of long-term adaptations to regular aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise can cause several central cardiovascular adaptations, including an increase in stroke volume (SV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), as well as a decrease in resting heart rate (RHR). Long-term adaptations to resistance training, the most common form of anaerobic exercise, include muscular hypertrophy,  an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle(s), and an increase in neural drive,  both of which lead to increased muscular strength. Neural adaptations begin more quickly and plateau prior to the hypertrophic response.
Roper's gymnasium, Philadelphia, USA, circa 1831.
Running helps in achieving physical fitness.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title= Running and jogging - health benefits}}</ref>
Skateboarding is good for cardiovascular health<ref>{{cite web |title=5 Reasons Why Skateboarding Is Good Exercise |url= |website=Longboarding Nation |access-date=6 July 2021 |date=25 January 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|date=January 2022}}
Swimming as an exercise tones muscles and builds strength.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title= Swimming - health benefits }}</ref>
Athletics (ex. pole vault) as a form of exercise
Football as an exercise

Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance. Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, dancing, playing tennis, continuous training, and long distance running.


Movement of humans, animals, and goods from one location to another.

Human-powered transport remains common in developing countries.
An Air France Airbus A318 lands at London Heathrow Airport.
Intercity Express, a German high-speed passenger train
The Beijing Subway is one of the world's largest and busiest rapid transit networks.
Road transport
Automobile ferry in Croatia
Trans-Alaska Pipeline for crude oil
Bridges, such as Golden Gate Bridge, allow roads and railways to cross bodies of water.
Tunnels, such as the Tampere Tunnel, allow traffic to pass underground or through rock formations.
A Fiat Uno in 2018
Incheon International Airport, South Korea
A local transit bus operated by ACTION in Canberra, Australia
An ambulance from World War I
A bulk carrier, BW Fjord
Freight train with shipping containers in the United Kingdom
Transport is a key component of growth and globalization, such as in Seattle, Washington, United States.
The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, United Kingdom, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving.
Traffic congestion persists in São Paulo, Brazil, despite the no-drive days based on license numbers.
Bronocice pot with the earliest known image of a wheeled vehicle in the world, found in Poland
A bullock team hauling wool in Australia
The Wright brothers' first flight in 1903

Human-powered transport, a form of sustainable transport, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power, in the form of walking, running, and swimming.


19th-century form of competitive walking, often professional and funded by wagering, from which the modern sport of racewalking developed.

An 1836 illustration of a "Walking Wager", from Peter Piper's Practical Principles of Plain and Perfect Pronunciation, by Anonymous, Philadelphia.
Foster Powell
African American walking match at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina, 1879

During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, pedestrianism, like running or horse racing (equestrianism) was a popular spectator sport in Britain and Ireland.

The first notable exponent of this long-distance walking is generally considered to be Foster Powell (1734–93) who in 1773 walked 400 mi from London to York and back, and in 1788 walked 100 mi in 21 hours 35 minutes.


Portion of a human skeleton, showing plantigrade habit

In terrestrial animals, plantigrade locomotion means walking with the toes and metatarsals flat on the ground.

Achilles tendon

Tendon at the back of the lower leg, and is the thickest in the human body.

The Achilles tendon or calcaneal tendon is attached to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.
The achilles tendon, tendo calcaneus attaches distally to the calcaneual tuberosity, and arises superiorly from the triceps surae complex of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.
Achilles tendon at foetus

It commonly occurs as a result of overuse such as running.

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendinitis, also known as achilles tendinopathy, occurs when the Achilles tendon, found at the back of the ankle, becomes sore.

Drawing of Achilles tendonitis with the affected part highlighted in red
Demonstration of the right foot in pronation, neutral and supinated subtalar joint placements. Over-pronation (excessive pronation) occurs when the ankle begins to roll inward by more than 5 degrees, demonstrated with the arrows.
Walking gait cycle starting with the left leg demonstrated. The loading cycle is where foot pronation naturally occurs.
Calcification deposits forming an enthesophyte within the Achilles tendon at its calcaneal insertion. The Achilles tendon is wider than normal, further suggesting inflammation.
This photo demonstrates a calf raise exercise that can be performed to strengthen two of the major ankle plantar flexor muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus. This exercise can be performed with minimal to no equipment. A step can be added under the foot to enhance range of motion and weights can be added to increase the resistance

It commonly occurs as a result of overuse such as running.

John and Vera Richter

American married couple who ran an early raw food restaurant in Los Angeles, the Eutropheon, which became a meeting place for influential figures in the development of alternative lifestyles in California between 1917 and the late 1940s.

Steak tartare with raw egg, capers and onions

They were opposed to the use of coffee, sugar, salt, tobacco, alcohol, meat, dairy products, cooked food, and refrigeration, and promoted massage, heliotherapy, iris diagnosis, sun gazing, barefoot walking, and naturism.

The Ramblers

A path maintenance team from The Ramblers.

The Ramblers is the trading name of the Ramblers Association, Great Britain's leading walking charity.

Walking in the United Kingdom

One of the most popular outdoor recreational activities in the United Kingdom, and within England and Wales there is a comprehensive network of rights of way that permits access to the countryside.

Ivinghoe Beacon, Buckinghamshire, England (the eastern trailhead) seen looking north from the Ridgeway
Skiddaw mountain, the town of Keswick, Cumbria and Derwent Water seen from Walla Crag, Lake District, England
Claife Station, built at one of Thomas West's "viewing stations", to allow visiting tourists and artists to better appreciate the picturesque Lake District
Commemorative plaque of the Mass trespass of Kinder Scout in 1932, an event that led to great expansion of the public right of access to the British countryside
Limestone hills and dry-stone walls in the west of the Yorkshire Dales. This part of the national park is popular with walkers due to the presence of the Yorkshire Three Peaks.
The Mourne Wall, looking towards Hare's Gap in the Mourne Mountains, Northern Ireland
The paved surface of the Pennine Way on Black Hill, Cheshire, England
The summit of the Black Mountain, crossed by the Offa's Dyke Path on the English/Welsh border
Liathach seen from Beinn Eighe. With the Munro "Top" of Stuc a' Choire Dhuibh Bhig (915 metres) in the foreground and the two Munro summits in the background.
Striding Edge from Helvellyn, English Lake District
Hillwalkers on Catbells, Lake District, England
The Regent's Canal near St Mark's Regents' Park
Ingleborough, Yorkshire, which is on the Yorkshire Three Peaks

Walking is used in the United Kingdom to describe a range of activity, from a walk in the park to trekking in the Alps.


A wheelchair on the street
Depiction of Chinese philosopher Confucius in a wheelchair, dating to ca. 1680.
Nicolas Grollier de Servière (1596–1689) Wheelchair in his Cabinet of curiosities
Folding chair and stackable rigid chairs for visitors in NÄL hospital, Sweden
Wheelchairs allow access for tourists with disabilities, like this child in Egypt.
Boardwalk wheelchairs, early 20th century
A standing wheelchair with electrical 4-wheel drive and standing functions
A modern racing wheelchair
US vs. France, FIPFA World Cup, Tokyo, Japan, October 2007
Tracked all terrain wheelchair
A beach wheelchair
A wheelchair with a lightweight power add-on attached
This footbridge includes a step-free ramp to assist wheelchair users.
Wooden wheelchair dating to the early part of the 20th century
19th-century wheelchair
A beach wheelchair at a public beach in the Netherlands
A snow wheelchair at an outdoor park
A Leveraged Freedom Chair wheelchair user in Kenya. The chair has been engineered to be low-cost and usable on the rough roads common in developing countries.
Wheelchair fitted with Mecanum wheels, taken at an Trade fair in the early 1980s

A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, problems related to old age, or disability.