Baritone vocal range (G2–G4) notated on the bass staff (left) and on the piano keyboard in green with middle C (C4) shown in yellow
Bass vocal range (E2–E4) notated on the bass staff (left) and on piano keyboard in green with dot marking middle C (C4).

A bass-baritone is a high-lying bass or low-lying "classical" baritone voice type which shares certain qualities with the true baritone voice.

- Bass-baritone

Many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles (or bass-baritone parts in modern parlance).

- Baritone
Baritone vocal range (G2–G4) notated on the bass staff (left) and on the piano keyboard in green with middle C (C4) shown in yellow

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One of Gilbert's illustrations for his Bab Ballad "Gentle Alice Brown"

Gilbert and Sullivan

Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.

Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.

One of Gilbert's illustrations for his Bab Ballad "Gentle Alice Brown"
Ages Ago, during a rehearsal for which Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to Sullivan
The Crystal Palace, where several early Sullivan works were first performed
A contemporary illustration of Thespis from The Illustrated London News of 6 January 1872
D. H. Friston's engraving of the original production of Trial by Jury
An early poster showing scenes from The Sorcerer, Pinafore, and Trial by Jury
The Pirate King
George Grossmith as Bunthorne in Patience, 1881
Barnett as The Fairy Queen
Princess Ida, Act II Finale: Hildebrand and soldiers rush through the gate.
Poster for The Mikado
W.H. Denny as Wilfred and Jessie Bond as Phoebe in Yeomen
Rutland Barrington and Courtice Pounds as Giuseppe and Marco in The Gondoliers
Original facade of the Savoy Theatre c.1881
In the midst of the quarrel, Gilbert dedicated a collection of Savoy opera lyrics, Songs of a Savoyard, to the composer
The drawing room scene from Act II of Utopia, Limited
The Entr'acte expresses its pleasure that Gilbert and Sullivan are reunited
1921 cartoon of Gilbert and Sullivan audiences
Advertisement for the first recording of The Mikado, 1917
Detail from a Punch cartoon, showing Sullivan and Gilbert.
1880 Pirates poster
Frontispiece to The Pinafore Picture Book, 1908
Poster for Ages Ago, during a rehearsal for which Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to Sullivan

Fred Sullivan was the prototype for the "patter" (comic) baritone roles in the later operas.

The libretto of H.M.S. Pinafore relied on stock character types, many of which were familiar from European opera (and some of which grew out of Gilbert's earlier association with the German Reeds): the heroic protagonist (tenor) and his love-interest (soprano); the older woman with a secret or a sharp tongue (contralto); the baffled lyric baritone—the girl's father; and a classic villain (bass-baritone).

Bass vocal range (E2–E4) notated on the bass staff (left) and on piano keyboard in green with dot marking middle C (C4).

Bass (voice type)

Type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.

Type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.

Bass vocal range (E2–E4) notated on the bass staff (left) and on piano keyboard in green with dot marking middle C (C4).

Voices are subdivided into first bass and second bass with no distinction being made between bass and baritone voices, in contrast to the three-fold (tenor–baritone–bass) categorization of solo voices.

It is produced using a more Italianate vocal production, and possesses a faster vibrato, than its closest Germanic/Anglo-Saxon equivalent, the bass-baritone.

Theatre poster for The Mikado

The Mikado

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations.

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations.

Theatre poster for The Mikado
Cover of vocal score, c. 1895
Photo at the Japanese village taken by W. S. Gilbert
Durward Lely as Nanki-Poo
Ko-Ko – 1926 costume design by Charles Ricketts
Nanki-Poo as a wand'ring minstrel, from The Story of the Mikado. Art by Alice B. Woodward.
Theatre poster, Edinburgh, 1885
Political parody celebrating the bicentennial of Albany, New York
Geraldine Ulmar, Yum-Yum in the New York cast
Ko-Ko reveals that when a man is beheaded, his wife is buried alive: from Gilbert's children's book The Story of the Mikado. Art by Alice B. Woodward.
Grossmith "made up" as Ko-Ko
Temple as the Mikado
Barrington: "Lord-high everything else"
D'Oyly Carte Opera Company production, 1962
Cover of re-issue of 1907 Mikado recording
Cover of The Story of the Mikado. Art by Alice B. Woodward.
1886 advertisement featuring the "three little maids"
Wallpaper showing characters from The Mikado and other Savoy operas
From The Capitalist, 1888
Film poster for The Little Shop of Horrors parodying the song "The Flowers that Bloom in the Spring, Tra la!" changing the word "bloom" to "kill"

The Mikado of Japan (bass or bass-baritone)

Ko-Ko, The Lord High Executioner of Titipu (comic baritone)

Theatre poster, 1879

H.M.S. Pinafore

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Theatre poster, 1879
Punch cartoon, 1877, portraying First Lord of the Admiralty W. H. Smith as a land-lubber, saying: "I think I'll now go below." In Pinafore, Sir Joseph similarly sings: "When the breezes blow / I generally go below".
Scene from 1886 Savoy Theatre souvenir programme
Illustration of the characters in Act II by D. H. Friston, 1878
Rutland Barrington as A.B.S. Corcoran at the end of Pinafore
Poster illustration from original 1878 production
Opening night programme cover
Advertisement for a (probably unlicensed) American production of H.M.S. Pinafore
1880 programme for Carte's Children's Pinafore
Ruth Vincent as Josephine in 1899
Punch cartoon mocking Sullivan for his focus on comic opera
Rutland Barrington as Captain Corcoran in the first London revival, 1887
Souvenir programme cover from 1878 during the run of the original production
Theatre poster for an American production, c. 1879
Gilbert's Illustration of "A British tar" (1906)
Bond as Hebe with Grossmith as Sir Joseph, 1887 revival
Frontispiece by Alice B. Woodward to The Pinafore Picture Book, 1908
W.S. Gilbert in about 1878
Arthur Seymour Sullivan

The Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph Porter, KCB, First Lord of the Admiralty (comic baritone)

Dick Deadeye, Able Seaman (bass-baritone)

Drawing of the Act I finale

The Pirates of Penzance

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Drawing of the Act I finale
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Poster for the copyright performance at Paignton
George Grossmith as General Stanley, wearing Wolseley's trademark moustache
Marion Hood: "Yes, 'tis Mabel!"
George Power, the original Frederic in London
"Have mercy on us!"
Drawing of Richard Temple as the Pirate King
Isabel Jay as Mabel
Pirate King Henry Lytton denounces Major-General C. H. Workman.
1880 poster
1881 programme cover
Drawing from programme of children's Pirates, 1884
Smith, Ronstadt and Kline at the Delacorte Theatre
Opera Australia's 2007 touring production of Pirates, with Anthony Warlow as the Pirate King
The Major-General carries an encyclopedia in this "Bab" drawing.
Wallpaper showing characters from Pirates and other Savoy operas

Major-General Stanley (comic baritone)

The Pirate King (bass-baritone)

Theatre poster, 1884

The Sorcerer

Two-act comic opera, with a libretto by W. S. Gilbert and music by Arthur Sullivan.

Two-act comic opera, with a libretto by W. S. Gilbert and music by Arthur Sullivan.

Theatre poster, 1884
1878 programme cover
Richard Temple with Mrs Howard Paul in The Sorcerer (1877)
Incantation scene
Act II opening, from 1884 programme
Henry Lytton (J. W. Wells), Elsie Griffin (Aline) and Derek Oldham (Alexis), 1920
W. S. Gilbert illustration, 1890
From 1877 programme
Poster by H. M. Brock for the 1919 revival
Walter Passmore as J. W. Wells in the 1898 revival
Dr Daly accompanies himself on a flageolet on stage
"Welcome, joy, adieu to sadness!"
Grossmith as J. W. Wells, his first of many "patter roles". Sketch by W. S. Gilbert
Rutland Barrington as Dr Daly
Bond, as Constance, pines for Dr Daly, 1884
Warwick and Bentham, 1878, after Warwick took over the role of Aline
Wallpaper showing characters from The Sorcerer and other Savoy operas

Sir Marmaduke Pointdextre, an Elderly Baronet (bass-baritone)

Dr Daly, Vicar of Ploverleigh (lyric baritone)

The ghost scene, depicted by H. M. Brock for the first D'Oyly Carte Opera Company revival in 1921

Ruddigore

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

The ghost scene, depicted by H. M. Brock for the first D'Oyly Carte Opera Company revival in 1921
Amédée Forestier's illustration of scenes in The Illustrated London News, before the opera's name change.
Richard, Rose and Robin
Robin and Rose
Durward Lely as Dauntless
Henry Lytton as Sir Ruthven
Courtice Pounds as Richard in the original New York production (1887)
George Grossmith as Robin Oakapple
Bond and Barrington: Margaret discloses one of her "odd thoughts" to Despard.
Geraldine Ulmar as Rose in New York
Jessie Bond as Margaret
William Bridges-Adams' Act II set design for the 1921 revival.
Poster from 1887, with Rose and Robin

Sir Ruthven Murgatroyd Disguised as Robin Oakapple, a Young Farmer (comic baritone)

Sir Despard Murgatroyd of Ruddigore, A Wicked Baronet (bass-baritone or baritone)

Scene from The Yeomen of the Guard D'Oyly Carte Opera Company 1906 Revival

The Yeomen of the Guard

Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Scene from The Yeomen of the Guard D'Oyly Carte Opera Company 1906 Revival
1883 poster similar to the one Gilbert said gave him the inspiration for the opera
Denny (Wilfred) and Bond (Phœbe), 1888
Souvenir illustration from the New York Casino Theatre production, 1888
Gilbert's illustration of "I have a song to sing, O!"
Geraldine Ulmar as Elsie
"Strange Adventure, Maiden Wedded"
"Consider each person's auricular"
"When a Wooer Goes A-Wooing"
"Jealous Torments", written for Barrington, was not ultimately performed by his replacement, newcomer Denny
Charles H. Workman as Jack Point
Cover of tin box, with scene from Yeomen
Illustration of the 15th century Tower of London
Poster for 1897 production

Sir Richard Cholmondeley (pronounced Chum'lee), Lieutenant of the Tower (baritone)

Sergeant Meryll of the Yeomen of the Guard (bass-baritone)

W. Russell Flint illustration, 1909: luncheon scene Act II: Hilarion (disguised as a woman) speaks with Ida.

Princess Ida

Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

W. Russell Flint illustration, 1909: luncheon scene Act II: Hilarion (disguised as a woman) speaks with Ida.
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Brandram as Blanche
Bab illustration for Princess Ida
Caricature of Charles Darwin contemplating a bustle, in Fun, 1872
Guron (Warwick Gray), Arac (Richard Temple) and Scynthius (William Lugg), 1884
Lytton as Gama, 1921
Illustration by Gilbert for the "Darwinian Man" song; compare with Darwin image above.
Rutland Barrington as Hildebrand, 1884
"I can tell a woman's age in half a minute – and I do!" (A line from King Gama's song, "If you give me your attention.")
Ida, Blanche and the students, 1884.
"Gently, Gently": 1884 illustration
"Jump for Joy and Gaily Bound!" (from Act II)
Winifred Lawson as Princess Ida, 1922
"Gently, Gently": Darnton (Cyril, left), Oldham (Hilarion, right) and Granville (Florian), 1921

King Hildebrand (bass-baritone)

Florian, Hilarion's Friend (lyric baritone)

From Act I of the 1907 D'Oyly Carte production at the Savoy Theatre

The Gondoliers

Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.

From Act I of the 1907 D'Oyly Carte production at the Savoy Theatre
Barrington and Pounds as Giuseppe and Marco
The gavotte scene: Circa 1890 advertisement for a touring company of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company.
Savoy Theatre, 1881
The Entr'acte expresses its pleasure that Gilbert and Sullivan are reunited.
W. H. Denny as The Grand Inquisitor
Pounds as Marco, Act II
"Try we life-long"
Brownlow and Moore as Luiz and Casilda
"At charity dinners, the best of speech-spinners, I get 10% of the takings!"

The Duke of Plaza-Toro, A Grandee of Spain (comic baritone)

Don Alhambra del Bolero, the Grand Inquisitor of Spain (bass-baritone)