Bark (botany)

barktree barkperiderminner barkbarkingbarksouter barkphellodermroot barktree hide
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.wikipedia
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Tree

treessaplingarboreal
Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs.
For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier.

Tanbark

oak barkbarkhemlock bark
Products derived from bark include: bark shingle siding and wall coverings, spices and other flavorings, tanbark for tannin, resin, latex, medicines, poisons, various hallucinogenic chemicals and cork.
Tanbark is the bark of certain species of tree.

Cork (material)

corkcorkycorks
Products derived from bark include: bark shingle siding and wall coverings, spices and other flavorings, tanbark for tannin, resin, latex, medicines, poisons, various hallucinogenic chemicals and cork. Among the commercial products made from bark are cork, cinnamon, quinine (from the bark of Cinchona) and aspirin (from the bark of willow trees). In the cork oak (Quercus suber) the bark is thick enough to be harvested as a cork product without killing the tree; in this species the bark may get very thick (e.g. more than 20 cm has been reported ).
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.

Root

adventitious rootsrootsplant roots
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
The former forms secondary xylem and secondary phloem, while the latter forms the periderm.

Woody plant

woodywoody plantsligneous
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of bark.

Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
Those three tissues form the periderm, which replaces the epidermis in function.

Phloem

secondary phloemtranslocationcompanion cell
The cambium tissues, i.e., the cork cambium and the vascular cambium, are the only parts of a woody stem where cell division occurs; undifferentiated cells in the vascular cambium divide rapidly to produce secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside. The inner bark (phloem) of some trees is edible; in Scandinavia, bark bread is made from rye to which the toasted and ground innermost layer of bark of scots pine or birch is added.
In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark, hence the name, derived from the Greek word φλοιός (phloios) meaning "bark".

Mulch

mulchingbark mulchcovering with mulch/compost
A number of plants are also grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations and surface textures or their bark is used as landscape mulch.
Organic residues: grass clippings, leaves, hay, straw, kitchen scraps comfrey, shredded bark, whole bark nuggets, sawdust, shells, woodchips, shredded newspaper, cardboard, wool, animal manure, etc. Many of these materials also act as a direct composting system, such as the mulched clippings of a mulching lawn mower, or other organics applied as sheet composting.

Lenticel

lenticelslenticellatelenticles
Within the periderm are lenticels, which form during the production of the first periderm layer.
A lenticel is a porous tissue consisting of cells with large intercellular spaces in the periderm of the secondarily thickened organs and the bark of woody stems and roots of dicotyledonous flowering plants.

Tannin

tanninshamamelitannintan
Bark tissues make up by weight between 10–20% of woody vascular plants and consists of various biopolymers, tannins, lignin, suberin, suberan and polysaccharides.
The term tannin (from Anglo-Norman tanner, from Medieval Latin tannāre, from tannum, oak bark) refers to the use of oak and other bark in tanning animal hides into leather.

Wood

heartwoodwoodensapwood
9) Wood (xylem)
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, and roots.

Lignin

lignifiedlignificationlignify
Bark tissues make up by weight between 10–20% of woody vascular plants and consists of various biopolymers, tannins, lignin, suberin, suberan and polysaccharides.
Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily.

Epidermis (botany)

epidermisepidermalepidermal cells
In stems the cortex is between the epidermis layer and the phloem, in roots the inner layer is not phloem but the pericycle.
Woody stems and some other stem structures produce a secondary covering called the periderm that replaces the epidermis as the protective covering.

Cork cambium

cambiumcorkphellogen
The cork is produced by the cork cambium which is a layer of meristematically active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm.
It is one of the many layers of bark, between the cork and primary phloem.

Herbivore

herbivorousherbivoresherbivory
It serves as protection against damage from parasites, herbivorous animals and diseases, as well as dehydration and fire.
Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass, tree bark, and other tough plant material.

Suberin

suberizedsuberizationsuberised
Bark tissues make up by weight between 10–20% of woody vascular plants and consists of various biopolymers, tannins, lignin, suberin, suberan and polysaccharides. Cork cell walls contain suberin, a waxy substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem, and prevents infections by bacteria and fungal spores.
Suberin is found in the phellem layer of the periderm (or cork).

Meristem

apical meristemapexshoot apical meristem
The cork is produced by the cork cambium which is a layer of meristematically active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm.
Procambium: lies just inside of the protoderm and develops into primary xylem and primary phloem. It also produces the vascular cambium, and cork cambium, secondary meristems. The cork cambium further differentiates into the phelloderm (to the inside) and the phellem, or cork (to the outside). All three of these layers (cork cambium, phellem, and phelloderm) constitute the periderm. In roots, the procambium can also give rise to the pericycle, which produces lateral roots in eudicots.

Scots pine

pinePinus sylvestrisdeal
The inner bark (phloem) of some trees is edible; in Scandinavia, bark bread is made from rye to which the toasted and ground innermost layer of bark of scots pine or birch is added.
The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches.

Trunk (botany)

trunkboletree trunk
This dead layer is the rough corky bark that forms around tree trunks and other stems.
Bark

Willow

willowssallowSalix
Among the commercial products made from bark are cork, cinnamon, quinine (from the bark of Cinchona) and aspirin (from the bark of willow trees).
Willows all have abundant watery bark sap, which is heavily charged with salicylic acid, soft, usually pliant, tough wood, slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots.

Quercus suber

cork oakcorkcork oaks
In the cork oak (Quercus suber) the bark is thick enough to be harvested as a cork product without killing the tree; in this species the bark may get very thick (e.g. more than 20 cm has been reported ).
The tree forms a thick, rugged bark containing high levels of suberin.

Exfoliation (botany)

exfoliating barkexfoliatedexfoliating
In shrubs, older bark is quickly exfoliated and thick rhytidome accumulates.
In arboriculture, the term “exfoliating bark” describes the natural process and condition of the bark peeling-away from a tree trunk, typically in large pieces that remain partially attached to the trunk until such time as they are completely detached by the elements or the eventual and subsequent exfoliation of additional layers of bark.

Bark isolate

isolated from the barkfound in the barkisolate
Bark isolate
Bark isolates are chemicals which have been extracted from bark, which include the medicines salicylic acid (active metabolite of aspirin) and paclitaxel (Taxol). The pharmacology of bark isolates is an ongoing topic of medical research.

Bark painting

bark paintingsbark engravingsbark painters
Bark painting
Bark painting is an Australian Aboriginal art form, involving painting on the interior of a strip of tree bark.

Sun scald

southwest trunk winter injury
Frost crack and sun scald are examples of damage found on tree bark which trees can repair to a degree, depending on the severity.
Sun scald is the freezing of bark following high temperatures in the winter season, resulting in permanent visible damage to bark.