Barley

Hordeum vulgaremalting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgarepot barleyCommon barleycultivar of barleyglutinous barleyLargest barley producertwo row
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.wikipedia
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Beer

brewing industrybrewingbeers
Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods.
Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used.

Bere (grain)

bereberemealbere barley
The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, and refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.
Bere, pronounced "bear," is a six-row barley currently cultivated mainly on 5-15 hectares of land in Orkney, Scotland.

Poaceae

grassturfgrass family
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat producing animals.

Barley bread

barley loavesJečmeni
It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures.
Barley bread is a type of bread made from barley flour derived from the grain of the barley plant.

Tibet

TibetanGreater TibetThibet
However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley.
Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, and butter tea.

Fodder

feedforagelivestock feed
Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods.
Fodder in the form of sprouted cereal grains such as barley, and legumes can be grown in small and large quantities.

Adjuncts

adjunctFruit BeerFruit and vegetable beer
Amylase-rich six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers, especially when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used.
In brewing, adjuncts are unmalted grains (such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat ) or grain products used in brewing beer which supplement the main mash ingredient (such as malted barley).

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
In 2017, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (149 million tonnes) behind maize, rice and wheat.
Maize is an annual grass in the family Gramineae, which includes such plants as wheat, rye, barley, rice, sorghum, and sugarcane.

Beer in Germany

German beerGermanbeer
Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers.
In the original text, the only ingredients that could be used in the production of beer were water, barley, and hops, which had to be added only while the wort was boiling.

Stem rust

Puccinia graminiscereal rustwheat stem rust
Crop species that are affected by the disease include bread wheat, durum wheat, barley and triticale.

Loose smut

U. nudaloose smut of barleyUstilago nuda
It is a disease that can destroy a large proportion of a barley crop.

Straw

straw balerice strawstrawbale
It makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat.

Barley yellow dwarf

Barley yellow dwarf virusBYDVBarley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)
It affects the economically important crop species barley, oats, wheat, maize, triticale and rice.

Scald (barley disease)

Scaldbarley and rye scaldScald (barley)
Scald is common disease of barley in temperate regions.

Malt

malted barleymalt extractbarley malt
Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.
Various cereals are malted, though barley is the most common.

Highland barley

barley
Highland barley, Tibetan barley or Himalayan barley (Tibetan: ནས་; Wylie: nas; Chinese: 青稞; qīngkē, or 藏青稞; zàng qīngkē) is the principal cereal cultivated on the Tibetan Plateau, used mainly to make tsampa and alcohol.

Vomitoxin

deoxynivalenolDON
This mycotoxin occurs predominantly in grains such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, and corn, and less often in rice, sorghum, and triticale.

Maris Otter

Maris Otter is a two-row, autumn sown variety of barley commonly used in the production of malt for the brewing industry.

Fertile Crescent

Fertile Crescent regionAnatoliacradle of human civilization
spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides, and orchards.
Most importantly, the Fertile Crescent was home to the eight Neolithic founder crops important in early agriculture (i.e., wild progenitors to emmer wheat, einkorn, barley, flax, chick pea, pea, lentil, bitter vetch), and four of the five most important species of domesticated animals—cows, goats, sheep, and pigs; the fifth species, the horse, lived nearby.

Powdery mildew (barley)

Powdery mildewpowdery mildew of barley
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease of barley caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp.

Hordenine

peyocactinN'',''N''-dimethyltyramine
H. vulgare contains the phenolics caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the ferulic acid 8,5'-diferulic acid, the flavonoids catechin-7-O-glucoside, saponarin, catechin, procyanidin B3, procyanidin C2, and prodelphinidin B3, and the alkaloid hordenine.
Hordenine (N,N-dimethyltyramine) is an alkaloid of the phenethylamine class that occurs naturally in a variety of plants, taking its name from one of the most common, barley (Hordeum species).

Pyrenophora teres

Net blotchDrechslera teresnet-spot blotch disease
Pyrenophora teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of some plant species, the most significant of which are economically important agricultural crops such as barley.

Procyanidin C2

H. vulgare contains the phenolics caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the ferulic acid 8,5'-diferulic acid, the flavonoids catechin-7-O-glucoside, saponarin, catechin, procyanidin B3, procyanidin C2, and prodelphinidin B3, and the alkaloid hordenine.
Procyanidin C2 is found in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) and wine, in barley (Hordeum vulgare), malt and beer, in Betula spp., in Pinus radiata, in Potentilla viscosa, in Salix caprea or in Cryptomeria japonica.

Husk

hulledhullhulling
f.) is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull.
Crop plants of several species have been selected that have hulless seeds, including pumpkins, oats, and barley.

Ferulic acid

ferulateferulicferuloyl
H. vulgare contains the phenolics caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, the ferulic acid 8,5'-diferulic acid, the flavonoids catechin-7-O-glucoside, saponarin, catechin, procyanidin B3, procyanidin C2, and prodelphinidin B3, and the alkaloid hordenine.
It is also found in barley grain.