A report on Barley

Barley seeds with and without the outer husk
Seed under a microscope.
Barley
The cross-section of a barley root
Two-row and six-row barley
Barley
Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BCE
An account of barley rations issued monthly to adults (30 or 40 pints) and children (20 pints) written in cuneiform on clay tablet, written in year 4 of King Urukagina (circa 2350 BCE), from Girsu, Iraq, British Museum, London
Barley harvesting in Gaziantep, Turkey
Barley, oats, and some products made from them
Traditional floor malting of barley in Scotland
Barley straw used in a pond in Oud-Heverlee, Belgium
Non-hulless barley grains

Major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

- Barley

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Rye

11 links

Grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

Grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

Rye grains
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Rye exports by country (2014), from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
Rye production map
Sultsina, a traditional Karelian dish made of unleavened rye dough and a farina filling
Some different types of rye grain
Rye seed enclosed in its husk
Wild rye
The grain of wheat, rye and triticale—triticale grain is significantly larger than that of wheat.

It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to both wheat (Triticum) and barley (genus Hordeum).

Schlenkerla Rauchbier, a traditional smoked beer, being poured from a cask into a beer glass

Beer

7 links

One of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

One of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

Schlenkerla Rauchbier, a traditional smoked beer, being poured from a cask into a beer glass
Schlenkerla Rauchbier, a traditional smoked beer, being poured from a cask into a beer glass
Beore 'beer'
Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, California
François Jaques: Peasants Enjoying Beer at Pub in Fribourg (Switzerland, 1923)
A 16th-century brewery
Malted barley before roasting
Hop cone in a Hallertau, Germany, hop yard
Brewing factory
Annual beer consumption per capita by country
Cask ale hand pumps with pump clips detailing the beers and their breweries
Kriek, a variety of beer brewed with cherries
Paulaner dunkel – a dark lager
A selection of cask beers
Assortment of beer bottles
A tent at Munich's Oktoberfest in Germany. The event is known as the world's largest beer festival.
Beer culture in Cameroon. A friendship drink of millet beer at the market, Mogode, Cameroon, 1998.

It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), rice, and oats are also used.

Maize

8 links

Maize (Zea mays subsp.

Maize (Zea mays subsp.

Plant fragments dated to 4200 BC found in the Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, showed maize had already been domesticated from teosinte.
Cultivation of maize in an illustration from the 16th c. Florentine Codex
Ancient Mesoamerican relief, National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico
Many small male flowers make up the male inflorescence, called the tassel.
Zea mays 'Ottofile giallo Tortonese` – MHNT
Zea mays "strawberry"—MHNT
Zea mays "Oaxacan Green" MHNT
Variegated maize ears
Multicolored corn kernels (CSIRO)
Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains
Teosinte (top), maize-teosinte hybrid (middle), maize (bottom)
Stucco head of the Maya maize god, 550–850 AD
Seedlings three weeks after sowing
Young stalks
Mature plants showing ears
Mature maize ears
Harvesting maize, Jones County, Iowa
Harvesting maize, Rantasalmi, South Savonia, Finland
Hand-picking harvest of maize in Myanmar
Production of maize (2019)
Semi-peeled corn on the cob
Poster showing a woman serving muffins, pancakes, and grits, with canisters on the table labeled corn meal, grits, and hominy, US Food Administration, 1918
Mexican tamales made with corn meal
Boiled corn on a white plate
Farm-based maize silage digester located near Neumünster in Germany, 2007. Green inflatable biogas holder is shown on top of the digester.
Children playing in a maize kernel box
Female inflorescence, with young silk
Mature silk
Stalks, ears and silk
Male flowers
Full-grown maize plants
Mature maize ear on a stalk
Maize kernels
Maize plant diagram
Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels
With white and yellow kernels

Maize is an annual grass in the family Gramineae, which includes such plants as wheat, rye, barley, rice, sorghum, and sugarcane.

Poaceae

4 links

Large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses.

Large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses.

Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles.
Grass flowers
A kangaroo eating grass
Wind-blown grass in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, United States
Setaria verticillata from Panicoideae
A lawn in front of a building
The gray area is the cricket pitch currently in use. Parallel to it are other pitches in various states of preparation which could be used in other matches.
Grass-covered house in Iceland
Typical grass seen in meadows
Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules
Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident
A Chasmanthium latifolium spikelet
Wheat spike and spikelet
Spikelet opened to show caryopsis
Harestail grass
Grass
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
Roots of Bromus hordeaceus
Barley mature spikes (Hordeum vulgare)
Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays)
A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers.
Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Oryza sativa, Kerala, India

The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals.

Examples of sources of gluten (clockwise from top): wheat as flour, spelt, barley, and rye as rolled flakes

Gluten

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Structural protein naturally found in certain cereal grains.

Structural protein naturally found in certain cereal grains.

Examples of sources of gluten (clockwise from top): wheat as flour, spelt, barley, and rye as rolled flakes
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Wheat, a prime source of gluten
Gluten is often used in imitation meats (such as this mock duck) to provide supplemental protein and in vegetarian diets
Medical animation still showing flattened intestinal villi.

These include any species of wheat (such as common wheat, durum, spelt, khorasan, emmer and einkorn), barley, rye and some oat cultivars, as well as any cross hybrids of these grains (such as triticale).

Various leavened breads

Bread

5 links

Staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

Staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

Various leavened breads
Bread shop, Tacuinum Sanitatis from Northern Italy, beginning of the 15th century
Sangak, an Iranian flatbread
Strucia — a type of European sweet bread
Small home made bread with pumpkin and sunflower seeds
Bread pudding
Crust of a cut bread made of whole-grain rye with crust crack (half right at the top)
Steps in bread making, here for an unleavened Chilean tortilla
Baking bread in East Timor
A dough trough, located in Aberdour Castle, once used for leavening bread.
Compressed fresh yeast
Sourdough loaves
A Ukrainian woman in national dress welcoming with bread and salt
Before first rising
After first rising
After proofing, ready to bake

Non-wheat cereals including rye, barley, maize (corn), oats, sorghum, millet and rice have been used to make bread, but, with the exception of rye, usually in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten.

A handful of malted barley, the white sprouts visible

Malt

4 links

Germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "malting".

Germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "malting".

A handful of malted barley, the white sprouts visible
Beer malt varieties from Bamberg, Germany
Malted grain for beer production
Samanu decorated with pistachio
Barley is spread out on the floor of a malthouse during a traditional malting process.
Homebrewing malt extracts - liquid in a can and spray-dried
Barley malt syrup being slowly added to flour in a bagel recipe
1897 Pabst Malt Extract ad

Various cereals are malted, though barley is the most common.

A fodder factory set up by an individual farmer to produce customised cattle feed

Fodder

3 links

Any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.

Any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.

A fodder factory set up by an individual farmer to produce customised cattle feed
Round hay bales
Newton of Cawdor stack of bales, sweet-smelling fodder stored for winter
Cut green fodder being transported to cattle in Tanzania
Feed crusher. 1976
On-site system in the US
Farmer mills branches of shrubs for the production of low-cost animal fodder in Namibia

Barley

A bag of wheat, often used as an adjunct

Adjuncts

2 links

A bag of wheat, often used as an adjunct
Magic Hat #9 fruit beer in a mug

In brewing, adjuncts are unmalted grains (such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat ) or grain products used in brewing beer which supplement the main mash ingredient (such as malted barley).

A bowl of oatmeal porridge

Porridge

5 links

Food made by heating or boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants, typically grain, in milk or water.

Food made by heating or boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants, typically grain, in milk or water.

A bowl of oatmeal porridge
A bowl of oatmeal porridge
Cooked oatmeal in a bowl
Porridge as sold in German supermarkets
Millet porridge
Porridge oats before cooking
Porridge by William Hemsley (1893)
Champorado
Rice porridge with mixed fruit soup
Beef yam porridge with red and green pepper
Malt-O-Meal with coffee
Traditional Estonian rustic porridge Mulgipuder made with potatoes, groats and meat is known as a national dish of Estonia
Traditional Latvian barley grit porridge with milk, potatoes and speck (bukstiņputra)

Other grains used for porridge include rice, wheat, barley, corn, triticale and buckwheat.