Barter

barter economybarteringbarter tradebarter systembarter exchangebarter goodsexchangein kindbarter economiesin-kind contributions
In trade, barter (derived from baretor ) is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.wikipedia
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Trade

tradingmercantileexchange
In trade, barter (derived from baretor ) is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
An early form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services.

Medium of exchange

mediums of exchangeexchange mediumfreely exchangeable for goods
In trade, barter (derived from baretor ) is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Because it can be exchanged for any good or service it acts as an intermediary instrument and avoids the limitations of barter; where what one wants has to be exactly matched with what the other has to offer.

Gift economy

gift exchangegift economiesNon-market economics
Economists distinguish barter from gift economies in many ways; barter, for example, features immediate reciprocal exchange, not delayed in time.
This contrasts with a barter economy or a market economy, where goods and services are primarily explicitly exchanged for value received.

Bilateral trade

bilateralmultilateral tradetrade
Barter usually takes place on a bilateral basis, but may be multilateral (i.e., mediated through a trade exchange).
Bilateral trade or clearing trade is trade exclusively between two states, particularly, barter trade based on bilateral deals between governments, and without using hard currency for payment.

Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)

reciprocityGeneralized reciprocityreciprocal exchange
Economists distinguish barter from gift economies in many ways; barter, for example, features immediate reciprocal exchange, not delayed in time.
In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter (immediate exchange) to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected (delayed exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.

Money

monetaryspeciecash
In trade, barter (derived from baretor ) is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
The use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied primarily on barter.

Currency

currenciesforeign currencycoinage
Market actors use barter as a replacement for money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when currency becomes unstable (e.g., hyperinflation or a deflationary spiral) or simply unavailable for conducting commerce.
African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many places, various forms of barter still apply.

Market (economics)

marketmarketsmarket forces
Adam Smith, the father of modern economics, sought to demonstrate that markets (and economies) pre-existed the state.
While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor power) in exchange for money from buyers.

Economy

economiceconomiesnational economy
Economists since the times of Adam Smith (1723-1790), looking at non-specific pre-modern societies as examples, have used the inefficiency of barter to explain the emergence of money, of "the" economy, and hence of the discipline of economics itself.
A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency.

Commerce

commercialcommerciallybusiness
Market actors use barter as a replacement for money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when currency becomes unstable (e.g., hyperinflation or a deflationary spiral) or simply unavailable for conducting commerce.
Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other (the barter system was popular in ancient times where one could get goods and services by offering the other person some other good and service according to their need instead of paying with monetary systems, which developed later).

Hyperinflation

hyper-inflationinflationgalloping inflation
Market actors use barter as a replacement for money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when currency becomes unstable (e.g., hyperinflation or a deflationary spiral) or simply unavailable for conducting commerce.
Older economies would revert to hard currency and barter when the circulating medium became excessively devalued, generally following a "run" on the store of value.

The Wealth of Nations

Wealth of NationsAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsAdam Smith
Barter is characterized in Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations" by a disparaging vocabulary: "haggling, haggling, swapping, dickering."
Division of labour arises not from innate wisdom, but from humans' propensity to barter.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Economists since the times of Adam Smith (1723-1790), looking at non-specific pre-modern societies as examples, have used the inefficiency of barter to explain the emergence of money, of "the" economy, and hence of the discipline of economics itself.
Its economic function can be contrasted with barter (non-monetary exchange).

Index of international trade topics

List of international trade topicsIndex of international trade articles

Scrip

gift certificatesgift certificateprivate currency
In LETS, unlike other local currencies, no scrip is issued, but rather transactions are recorded in a central location open to all members.
To side-step implications that the community intended their scrip as an unlawful substitute for currency, it now issues exchange coupons called Boon Kut Chum.

International Reciprocal Trade Association

According to the International Reciprocal Trade Association, the industry trade body, more than 450,000 businesses transacted $10 billion globally in 2008 – and officials expect trade volume to grow by 15% in 2009.
A barter exchange acts as a third party record keeper for its participating business clients.

Private currency

private currenciesprivatelimited means of payment
These include commercial trade exchanges that use barter credits as units of exchange, private gold and silver exchanges, local paper money, computerized systems of credits and debits, and digital currencies in circulation, such as digital gold currency.

Natural economy

natural system of production
It is a system of allocating resources through direct bartering, entitlement by law, or sharing out according to traditional custom.

Karl Hess

Hess, Karl
In the United States, Karl Hess used bartering to make it harder for the IRS to seize his wages and as a form of tax resistance.
He was supported financially thereafter by his wife and used barter to keep himself busy.

Local exchange trading system

LETSLocal Exchange Trading SystemsLocal Exchange Trading Systems (LETS)
Michael Linton this originated the term "local exchange trading system" (LETS) in 1983 and for a time ran the Comox Valley LETSystems in Courtenay, British Columbia.
LETS is a full-fledged monetary or exchange system, unlike direct barter.

Property caretaker

caretakercaretakersSchool Caretaker
A property caretaker is a person, group, or organization that cares for real estate for trade or financial compensation, and sometimes as a barter for rent-free living accommodations.

Collaborative consumption

Online platforms for collaborative consumptiononline platformonline platforms
Focusing on redistribution systems only, the Canadian-based Kijiji Secondhand Economy Index of 2016, estimated that about 85% of consumers acquired or disposed of pre-owned goods through second-hand marketplaces (secondhand purchase and resale), donation, or barter, through either online or offline exchange channels.

Local currency

local currencieslocalcommunity currency
In LETS, unlike other local currencies, no scrip is issued, but rather transactions are recorded in a central location open to all members.

Mutual credit

mutual banking
As credit is issued by the network members, for the benefit of the members themselves, LETS are considered mutual credit systems.

Quid pro quo

in exchange forquid-pro-quoquiproquo